Dr. Spina graduated in Medicine, specialized in Neurology and in Psychiatry at the University of Messina, Italy. He obtained a doctorate (Ph.D) in Clinical Pharmacology at Karolinska Institute, Stockholm. Currently, Dr. Spina is Professor of Pharmacology at the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina. His main scientific interest is clinical neuropsychopharmacology. Dr. Spina authored more than 200 articles in international journals and 2 books. He is Associate Editor of Frontiers in Pharmacogenetics and member of the editorial board of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology and Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment.