Biosensors are devices which comprise of a biological recognition element and a transducer that is a physicochemical detector system. In other words, a biosensor is a sophisticated tool that combines a biological component; a bioreceptor, with a physicochemical detector component; the transducer, for the purpose of detection of an analyte. The transducer converts the information into a measurable effect such as an electric signal which can be measured and quantified. The sensitivity of biosensors can be improved and enhanced by changing the nano material in the construction. This field of research is fast developing. A conceptual background of biosensors based on selected Gold nanoparticles, their properties, synthesis, characterization and their associated uses has been described in this chapter.
Keywords: Gold nanoparticles; biosensors; smart nanoparticles; selectivity.