Environmental Pollutants in the Mediterranean Sea: Recent Trends and Remediation Approaches

Short-Term Bioassay Tests for Toxicity Effluents Estimation and Bio-Monitoring Uses in Aquatic Ecosystems

Author(s): Sahar Karray and Monia El Bour *

Pp: 44-53 (10)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815179064123010004

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

Bioassays are defined as the measurement of toxic responses upon exposure to chemicals under controlled conditions in the laboratory using cultured organisms and represent powerful tools for the assessment of environmental quality. These biological tests were pointed out as the most common methods used to assess the environmental risk, mainly in marine ecosystems besides biomarkers and biosensors. The list of different toxicity bioassays is still increasing and a large battery of different aquatic organisms is available for the measurement of organic and inorganic chemical toxicity. The species selected for the available battery of bioassays differ taxonomically and play different roles in aquatic ecosystems. Else, they have different routes of exposure to bio-potential. Although many bioassays provide information about the overall toxicity induced, new test systems are developed and used for the determination of specific toxicity in a number of biological pathways disrupted by contaminants. Hereby, the list of bioassay tests used in aquatic ecosystems assessment is updated besides specific toxicity pathways for almost invertebrate and vertebrate aquatic species used to determine organic and inorganic pollutants effects.


Keywords: Aquatic ecosystems, Accute toxicity, Bioassays, Biomonitoring, Bioindicator organisms, Biochemical reponses, Chronic toxicity, Effluents, In vivo, Inorganic pollution, Invertebrates, Marine Pollution, Microbiological test, Organic pollution, Physiological reponses, Toxicity, Tests, Vertebrates.

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