As a result of new emerging pathological conditions, new microorganisms have set a challenge in front of the researchers for the development of treatment and vaccination strategies. In the area of vaccine development, new effects have been made to invent new vaccines and also to improve the efficacy of the currently available vaccines. A wide variety of vaccines have been developed from killed whole organisms, subunits and RNA or DNA fractions. To overcome the side effects of these vaccines, nanoparticles may carry the payload and deliver them on the target site. The nanoparticles have the potential to improve the efficacy of these antigens and reduce the side effects to a large extent . These nanoparticles should have the ability of safe delivery of the antigens, protect them from degradation, control release and biocompatible. In this study, we intended to discuss different characteristics of the nanoparticles along with their properties and the variety of payloads for immunstimulation.
Keywords: AIDS, Calcium phosphate, Carbon nanoparticle, Chitosan nanoparticle, Cytokines, DNA, Gold nanoparticle, Hydrophobicity, Immunstimulator, Inorganic nanoconjugate, Liposomal nanoparticle, Nanotechnology, Nucleic acid, Organic nanoconjugate, Polymeric nanoconjugate, RNA, Silica nanoparticle, Surface charge, Surface modification, Toll like receptors, Tuberculosis.