The study of nanocarriers for drug delivery opens a novel platform for the development of delivery vehicles that can transport and control release the payload in the target disease tissue by the smart application of biotechnology and nanotechnology. This study highlights the parameters that can be fabricated to make the nanocarrier optimum for specific disease condition and their current clinical application areas. Moreover, this study also reports about the several organic and inorganic nanoparticles and their properties that make them unique as a drug delivery vehicle. Despite remarkable development in this area of application, nanocarriers demonstrate a significant amount of unwanted side effects, such as, cytotoxicity or off-target side effects that diminish their efficiency in the biotechnology and biomedical applications. A complex biological environment makes this field more complicated, so, deep knowledge of the biological condition is the most important before developing an optimum therapeutic solution.
Keywords: Alginate, Cancer, Carbon nanotube, Cellulose, Chitosan, Dendrimer, Drug delivery vehicle, Gold nanoparticle, HIV, Inorganic nanoparticle, Liposome, Nanomedicine, Nutraceuticals, Organic nanoparticle, Polymeric nanoparticle, Quantum dot, Silica nanoparticle, Surface chemistry, Xanthan gum.