Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate vital cellular processes such as signaling, proteasomal mediated degradation of proteins, and transcription. Deregulation of post-translational modifications (PTMs) has been proven to have a strong association with breast cancer development. Aberrant PTMs can promote carcinogenesis by perturbing normal cellular homeostasis. The current literature review showed that breast cancer cells displayed abnormal ubiquitination, glycosylation, phosphorylation, and SUMOylation patterns. Breast cancer cells also exhibited stable modifications in histone proteins and DNA. These epigenetic modifications can directly affect the expression of cell cycle regulators by disrupting the transcriptional state of the genome. The current chapter summarizes the involvement of PTMs in carcinogenesis and the mechanism by which PTMs promote abnormal cell growth. Enzymes responsible for aberrant PTMs could be targeted to reduce the severity of the disease and may improve the prognosis of breast cancer.
Keywords: Biomarkers, Breast Cancer, Epigenetics, Post-Translational Modifications.