Epilepsy or seizures are often observed in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and an emerging association between the two diseases is more than coincidental based on recent research. Approximately 25% of patients with DM experience different types of seizures. Furthermore, diabetic patients who experienced episodes of DKA also have seizures more frequently. The precise pathogenesis of seizures in the diabetes patient remains undetermined. Currently, the leading hypotheses in the literature suggest that multiple physiological factors, such as immune abnormalities, microvascular lesions in the brain, local brain damage, metabolic factors and gene mutation, may contribute to this condition. To date, there are no international criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Although it is commonly assumed that antiepileptic drugs are necessary, most of the partial epilepsy patients with non-ketotic diabetes are resistant to frequently used antiepileptic drugs. In contrast, partial status epilepticus can be treated by diazepam, and carbamazepine is reported to be effective to some DM patients with epilepsy. However, anti-diabetic drugs are considered to be the most important factors in the treatment of this condition. When the blood glucose levels gradually return to normal levels, patients can no longer generate seizures even when antiepileptic drugs are discontinued.