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Current Cardiology Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-403X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6557

Review Article

Cardiac Complications and COVID-19: A Review of Life-threatening Co-morbidities

Author(s): Zeinab Eftekhar, Habib Haybar, Alireza Mohebbi and Najmaldin Saki*

Volume 20, Issue 3, 2024

Published on: 20 February, 2024

Article ID: e200224227160 Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/011573403X279782240206091322

Price: $65

Abstract

The novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported in the last days of December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The presence of certain co-morbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), are the basis for worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

Relevant English-language literature was searched and retrieved from the Google Scholar search engine and PubMed database up to 2023 using COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Heart failure, Myocardial infarction, and Arrhythmia and Cardiac complication as keywords.

Increased hemodynamic load, ischemia-related dysfunction, ventricular remodeling, excessive neurohumoral stimulation, abnormal myocyte calcium cycling, and excessive or insufficient extracellular matrix proliferation are associated with heart failure (HF) in COVID-19 patients. Inflammatory reaction due to the excessive release of inflammatory cytokines, leads to myocardial infarction (MI) in these patients. The virus can induce heart arrhythmia through cardiac complications, hypoxia, decreased heart hemodynamics, and remarkable inflammatory markers. Moreover, studies have linked cardiac complications in COVID-19 with poor outcomes, extended hospitalization time, and increased mortality rate. Patients with COVID-19 and CVDs are at higher mortality risk and they should be given high priority when receiving the treatment and intensive care during hospitalization.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, cardiac complication.

Graphical Abstract
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