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Current Vascular Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-1611
ISSN (Online): 1875-6212

Review Article

Testosterone and Peripheral Arterial Disease

Author(s): Aleš Blinc*, Gerit Holger Schernthaner, Pavel Poredoš, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Mojca Jensterle, Katica Bajuk Studen, Pier Luigi Antignani, Dimitri P. Mikhailidis and Mišo Šabović

Volume 21, Issue 5, 2023

Published on: 27 September, 2023

Page: [297 - 303] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1570161121666230809143023

Price: $65

Abstract

Testosterone levels in men begin declining in the early years of adulthood, with a 1-2% reduction/year. Low testosterone levels in men are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and increased cardiovascular mortality. However, observational studies of testosterone levels in males and their relationship with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have yielded mixed results; only some cohorts show a clear association with low free testosterone levels. This discrepancy may, in part, be due to methodological issues with estimating free testosterone but also to different effects of testosterone on the vessel wall and metabolism. While testosterone improves glycaemic control, has anti-obesity effects and induces vasodilation, it also stimulates platelet aggregation and increases the haematocrit. Androgen deprivation treatment for advanced prostate cancer may be associated with elevated cardiovascular risk, as is testosterone abuse for performance enhancement. On the other hand, judicious treatment of male hypogonadism or testosterone treatment of trans-men appears to be safe.

Keywords: Testosterone, cardiovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, vascular function, male hypogonadism, androgendeprivation, performance-enhancing drug, trans-men.

Graphical Abstract
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