Background: Lacunae and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) are two crucial imaging biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Multiple studies have revealed a close relationship between WMH and lacunae and found that a double penumbra existed at the edge of WMH that affects lacunae formation. The study aimed to explore the spatial distribution characteristics and possible influencing factors of lacuna in relation to white matter hyperintensity in patients with CSVD.
Methods: A total of 480 CSVD patients with WMH and with or without lacunae were included. Data about blood biochemical indicators, cerebrovascular CT angiography, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and ambulatory electrocardiogram, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound were gathered from all subjects. They were categorised into four groups based on the spatial interaction between lacunae and WMH. Univariate analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to compare the differences in traditional vascular risk factors, heart rate and blood pressure indicators, arterial pulsatility index (PI) values, and arterial stenosis among different groups.
Results: The average age of 480 patients was (58.63 ± 11.91) years, with 347 males (72.3%). Univariate analysis indicated that age, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein, 24-hour and daytime and night systolic and diastolic blood pressure, nocturnal heart rate, heart rate variability, PI values of ipsilateral and contralateral MCA (middle cerebral artery) and ICA (Internal carotid artery) of the lacunae, Fazekas score of PWMH (periventricular white matter hyperintensities), the proportion of MCA or ICA with stenosis rate over 50% on the ipsilateral side of the lacunae were significantly different between different groups (p < 0.05). High fasting blood glucose (OR=1.632, 95% CI= (1.128, 2.361), p =0.009), (OR=1.789, 95%CI= (1.270, 2.520), p = 0.001), (OR=1.806, 95% CI= (1.292, 2.524), p =0.001) was identified as a risk factor for lacunae formation by logistic regression analysis.
Conclusion: High fasting blood glucose can be considered a risk factor for lacunae formation in patients with WMH. The more severe the PWMH and the higher the nocturnal heart rate, the more likely the lacunae, as well as PWMH, overlap completely. Ipsilateral arteriosclerosis and stenosis are independent risk factors for no contact between lacunae and PWMH.
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