Generic placeholder image

Current Rheumatology Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-3971
ISSN (Online): 1875-6360

Meta-Analysis

Increased Prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Among Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Author(s): Jerapas Thongpiya*, Nipith Charoenngam, Ben Ponvilawan, Pitchaporn Yingchoncharoen, Aunchalee Jaroenlapnopparat and Patompong Ungprasert

Volume 19, Issue 4, 2023

Published on: 03 May, 2023

Page: [496 - 503] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573397119666230414103624

Price: $65

Abstract

Objective: This study was conducted to determine the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by pooling the evidence from all available studies.

Methods: Potentially eligible studies were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE database from inception to April 2021 employing a search strategy that consisted of terms for “Rheumatoid Arthritis” and “Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease”. Eligible studies for the meta-analysis were recruited with conditions of being cohort studies that included rheumatoid arthritis and without rheumatoid arthritis individuals. Together with this, prevalence of GERD in both groups and the odds ratio (OR) comparing the prevalence of GERD between the two cohorts have been reported. The retrieved point estimates with standard errors from each study were pooled into the final result by the random-effect model and generic inverse variance method as described by DerSimonian and Laird.

Results: A total of 3,646 articles were identified. After two rounds of independent review by two investigators, five cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis as they met the eligibility criteria. The pooled analysis demonstrated a significant association between RA and GERD with the pooled odds ratio of 1.98 (95% CI, 1.49 - 2.65). High statistical heterogeneity with I2 of 83% was observed. The funnel plot was symmetric and publication bias was not observed.

Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis found a significant association between GERD and RA.

Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, meta-analysis, RA, GERD, systematic review.

[1]
Nirwan JS, Hasan SS, Babar ZUD, Conway BR, Ghori MU. Global prevalence and risk factors of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD): Systematic review with meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2020; 10(1): 5814.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62795-1] [PMID: 32242117]
[2]
Tefera L, Fein M, Ritter MP, et al. Can the combination of symptoms and endoscopy confirm the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease? Am Surg 1997; 63(10): 933-6.
[PMID: 9322676]
[3]
Badillo R, Francis D. Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 2014; 5(3): 105-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4292/wjgpt.v5.i3.105] [PMID: 25133039]
[4]
Clarrett DM, Hachem C. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Mo Med 2018; 115(3): 214-8.
[PMID: 30228725]
[5]
Richter J. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in the older patient: Presentation, treatment, and complications. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95(2): 368-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9270(99)00850-3] [PMID: 10685737]
[6]
Ronkainen J, Aro P, Storskrubb T, et al. High prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and esophagitis with or without symptoms in the general adult Swedish population: A Kalixanda study report. Scand J Gastroenterol 2005; 40(3): 275-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365520510011579] [PMID: 15932168]
[7]
Shaheen NJ, Richter JE. Barrett’s oesophagus. Lancet 2009; 373(9666): 850-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60487-6] [PMID: 19269522]
[8]
Khademi H, Radmard AR, Malekzadeh F, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of age and alarm symptoms for upper GI malignancy in patients with dyspepsia in a GI clinic: A 7-year cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2012; 7(6): e39173.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039173] [PMID: 22720064]
[9]
Uhlig T, Moe RH, Kvien TK. The burden of disease in rheumatoid arthritis. PharmacoEconomics 2014; 32(9): 841-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40273-014-0174-6] [PMID: 24859304]
[10]
McInnes IB, Schett G. The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 2011; 365(23): 2205-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1004965] [PMID: 22150039]
[11]
Cross M, Smith E, Hoy D, et al. The global burden of rheumatoid arthritis: Estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Ann Rheum Dis 2014; 73(7): 1316-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204627] [PMID: 24550173]
[12]
Safiri S, Kolahi AA, Hoy D, et al. Global, regional and national burden of rheumatoid arthritis 1990–2017: A systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease study 2017. Ann Rheum Dis 2019; 78(11): 1463-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215920] [PMID: 31511227]
[13]
Rieder F, Biancani P, Harnett K, Yerian L, Falk GW. Inflammatory mediators in gastroesophageal reflux disease: impact on esophageal motility, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2010; 298(5): G571-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00454.2009] [PMID: 20299604]
[14]
Dunbar KB, Agoston AT, Odze RD, et al. Association of acute gastroesophageal reflux disease with esophageal histologic changes. JAMA 2016; 315(19): 2104-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.5657] [PMID: 27187303]
[15]
Huo X, Agoston AT, Dunbar KB, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α plays a role in mediating oesophagitis in GORD. Gut 2017; 66(9): 1542-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2016-312595] [PMID: 27694141]
[16]
Souza RF, Bayeh L, Spechler SJ, Tambar UK, Bruick RK. A new paradigm for GERD pathogenesis. Not acid injury, but cytokine-mediated inflammation driven by HIF-2α A potential role for targeting HIF-2α to prevent and treat reflux esophagitis. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2017; 37: 93-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2017.10.004] [PMID: 29112883]
[17]
Ismail M, Ibrahim D, Mustafa D, Abu Elfetooh E. Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Sohag Medical J 2017; 21(2): 133-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21608/smj.2017.41242]
[18]
Kronzer VL, Crowson CS, Sparks JA, Myasoedova E, Davis JM III. comorbidities as risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis and their accrual after diagnosis. Mayo Clin Proc 2019; 94(12): 2488-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.08.010] [PMID: 31759675]
[19]
Bolger C, Walsh T, Gorey T, Byrne P, Kelleher P, Attwood S, et al. Oesophageal function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Dis Esophagus 1993; 6: 47-50.
[20]
Shen TC, Lin CL, Wei CC, Tu CY, Li YF. The risk of asthma in rheumatoid arthritis: A population-based cohort study. QJM 2014; 107(6): 435-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcu008] [PMID: 24448376]
[21]
Kim SY, Min C, Park B, Choi HG. Bidirectional association between GERD and rheumatoid arthritis: Two longitudinal follow-up studies using a national sample cohort. Clin Rheumatol 2021; 40(4): 1249-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-05400-0] [PMID: 32944882]
[22]
Lo CKL, Mertz D. Loeb, M. Newcastle-ottawa scale: Comparing reviewers’ to authors’ assessments. BMC Med Res Methodol 2014; 14: 1-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-14-45]
[23]
DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 1986; 7(3): 177-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0197-2456(86)90046-2] [PMID: 3802833]
[24]
Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003; 327(7414): 557-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557] [PMID: 12958120]
[25]
Yoshida N. Inflammation and oxidative stress in gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007; 40(1): 13-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.40.13] [PMID: 18437209]
[26]
Orlando RC. The integrity of the esophageal mucosa. Balance between offensive and defensive mechanisms. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 24(6): 873-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpg.2010.08.008] [PMID: 21126700]
[27]
Zavala-Solares MR, Fonseca-Camarillo G, Valdovinos M, et al. Gene expression profiling of inflammatory cytokines in esophageal biopsies of different phenotypes of gastroesophageal reflux disease: A cross-sectional study. BMC Gastroenterol 2021; 21(1): 201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01707-7] [PMID: 33941087]
[28]
Swain LK. Narrative review of the role of inflammation in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Can food allergies play a part? Lifestyle Med 2021; 2(3): e35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lim2.35]
[29]
Ho KY, Gwee KA, Cheng YK, Yoon KH, Hee HT, Omar AR. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in chronic pain: implications of new data for clinical practice. J Pain Res 2018; 11: 1937-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S168188] [PMID: 30288088]
[30]
Lazenby JP, Guzzo MR, Harding SM, Patterson PE, Johnson LF, Bradley LA. Oral corticosteroids increase esophageal acid contact times in patients with stable asthma. Chest 2002; 121(2): 625-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.121.2.625] [PMID: 11834680]
[31]
W J Bijlsma J. Buttgereit F. Adverse events of glucocorticoids during treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: Lessons from cohort and registry studies. Rheumatology 2016; 55 (Suppl. 2): ii3-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kew344] [PMID: 27856654]
[32]
Curtis JR, Westfall AO, Allison J, et al. Population-based assessment of adverse events associated with long-term glucocorticoid use. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 55(3): 420-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.21984] [PMID: 16739208]
[33]
Fraenkel L, Bathon JM, England BR, et al. 2021 American college of rheumatology guideline for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 2021; 73(7): 1108-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41752] [PMID: 34101376]
[34]
Mak VP, Gravely K, Lim SY. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in statin-induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. Mod Rheumatol Case Rep 2021; 5(1): 58-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24725625.2020.1782031] [PMID: 32967573]
[35]
Carvalho AAS. Side effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on skeletal muscle: A narrative review. Curr Pharmacol Rep 2020; 6(6): 364-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40495-020-00243-4] [PMID: 33163329]
[36]
Deane KD, Demoruelle MK, Kelmenson LB, Kuhn KA, Norris JM, Holers VM. Genetic and environmental risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2017; 31(1): 3-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2017.08.003] [PMID: 29221595]
[37]
Kim O, Jang HJ, Kim S, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and its related factors among women of reproductive age: Korea Nurses’ Health Study. BMC Public Health 2018; 18(1): 1133.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6031-3] [PMID: 30241473]
[38]
Fujiwara Y, Kubo M, Kohata Y, et al. Cigarette smoking and its association with overlapping gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, or irritable bowel syndrome. Intern Med 2011; 50(21): 2443-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.50.6012] [PMID: 22041340]
[39]
Klareskog L, Stolt P, Lundberg K, et al. A new model for an etiology of rheumatoid arthritis: Smoking may trigger HLA–DR (shared epitope)–restricted immune reactions to autoantigens modified by citrullination. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54(1): 38-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.21575] [PMID: 16385494]
[40]
Johannsen A, Susin C, Gustafsson A. Smoking and inflammation: Evidence for a synergistic role in chronic disease. Periodontol 2000 2014; 64(1): 111-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0757.2012.00456.x] [PMID: 24320959]
[41]
Sparks JA, Chang SC, Deane KD, et al. Associations of smoking and age with inflammatory joint signs among unaffected first-degree relatives of rheumatoid arthritis patients: Results from studies of the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 2016; 68(8): 1828-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.39630] [PMID: 26866831]
[42]
Pandolfino JE, Kahrilas PJ. Smoking and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000; 12(8): 837-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00042737-200012080-00002] [PMID: 10958210]
[43]
Chang CS, Liao CH, Muo CH, Kao CH. Increased risk of concurrent gastroesophageal reflux disease among patients with Sjögren’s syndrome: A nationwide population-based study. Eur J Intern Med 2016; 31: 73-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2016.01.014] [PMID: 26854251]
[44]
Alvarez-Nemegyei J, Pacheco-Pantoja E, González-Salazar M, et al. Association between overweight/obesity and clinical activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Reumatol Clin 2020; 16(6): 462-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reumae.2018.11.014] [PMID: 30583870]
[45]
Wielosz E, Majdan M, Dryglewska M, Zwolak R. Anti-CCP antibodies and rheumatoid factor in systemic sclerosis: Prevalence and relationships with joint manifestations. Adv Clin Exp Med 2018; 27(9): 1253-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/69921] [PMID: 30024658]
[46]
Szodoray P, Hajas A, Kardos L, et al. Distinct phenotypes in mixed connective tissue disease: Subgroups and survival. Lupus 2012; 21(13): 1412-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203312456751] [PMID: 22864236]
[47]
Liu Y, Miao H, Lin S, Chen Z. Association between rheumatoid arthritis and thyroid dysfunction: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Front Endocrinol 2022; 13: 1015516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.1015516] [PMID: 36313752]
[48]
Oparin O, Khomenko L, Dvoyashkina Y, et al. Mechanisms of the formation of motor-secretory disorders in patients with gerd with concomitant AIT. Wiad Lek 2022; 75(1): 223-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.36740/WLek202201213] [PMID: 35182126]
[49]
McFarlane IM, Zhaz SY, Bhamra MS, et al. Assessment of interstitial lung disease among black rheumatoid arthritis patients. Clin Rheumatol 2019; 38(12): 3413-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04760-6] [PMID: 31471819]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy