Generic placeholder image

Recent Advances in Food, Nutrition & Agriculture


ISSN (Print): 2772-574X
ISSN (Online): 2772-5758

Review Article

Punica granatum Peel Waste - An Underutilized Substrate of Therapeutic Potential: An Overview

Author(s): Uroosa Noor, Shashi Soni and Ena Gupta*

Volume 13, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 21 December, 2022

Page: [103 - 119] Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/2772574X14666221124163344

Price: $65


India is the second largest consumer and producer of fruits globally. It leads to ample solid waste per year from fruit processing industries that have been proven hazardous to the surroundings. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) belongs to the Lythraceae subfamily Punicoideae, which exhibits immense nutritional properties and delicious flavoring components. The weight of this fruit mainly consists of peel, i.e., 50%, followed by 40% of arils and 10% of seeds. Thus, the major byproduct is peel that holds many valuable bioactive compounds in higher concentrations viz saponins, carotenoids, steroids, polyphenols, quercetin derivatives, caffeic acid, phenolic acids, flavonoids, ellagitannins, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, anthocyanidins, triterpenoids, glycosides, tannins, and many more. Consequently, it results in wideranging therapeutic applications, including antioxidative, anti-microbial, antihypertensive, anticarcinogenic, anti-genotoxic, anti-inflammatory, glucoregulation, cardio-protective, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects along with prebiotic potential. Considering their nutritional and therapeutic aspects, these peels can be used for many purposes rather than being disposed off. With a value-added approach, it is utilized in many food and non-food sectors. So, this review aims to explore the therapeutic potential of P. granatum peel and enlighten its diverse applications in the food industry.

Keywords: Punica granatum, solid waste, hazardous, nutritional, therapeutic, bioactive compounds.

Next »
Graphical Abstract
Chatterjee, S. Therapeutic fruit peels: Their role in preventing lifestyle disorders. Recent Res. Sci. Technol., 2014, 6(1)
Pathak, P.D.; Mandavgane, S.A.; Kulkarni, B.D. Fruit peel waste: Characterization and its potential uses. Curr. Sci., 2017, 113(3), 444-454.
Wadhwa, M.; Bakshi, M.P. Utilization of fruit and vegetable wastes as livestock feed and as substrates for generation of other value-added products. Rap Public., 2013, 4, 1-67.
Goula, A.M.; Lazarides, H.N. Integrated processes can turn industrial food waste into valuable food by-products and/or ingredients: The cases of olive mill and pomegranate wastes. J. Food Eng., 2015, 167, 45-50.
Sabiiti, E.N. Utilising agricultural waste to enhance food security and conserve the environment. Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev., 2011, 11(6), 1-9.
Pathak, P.D.; Mandavgane, S.A.; Kulkarni, B.D. Fruit peel waste as a novel low-cost bio adsorbent. Rev. Chem. Eng., 2015, 31(4), 361-381.
Stover, E.; Mercure, E.W. The pomegranate: A new look at the fruit of paradise. HortScience, 2007, 42(5), 1088-1092.
New direction aromatics, natural ingredients ethically sourced All About the oil from “natures super fruit” 2017. Available from:
Horticulture statistics division, department and ministry of agriculture, cooperation & farmers’ welfare, Government of India.( › sites › default › files › Horticulture Statistics at a Glance-2019-20. 2022. Available from: (Accessed on: 24-May 2022).
Pathak, P.D.; Mandavgane, S.A.; Kulkarni, B.D. Valorization of pomegranate peels: A biorefinery approach. Waste Biomass Valoriz., 2017, 8(4), 1127-1137.
Dhineshkumar, V.; Ramasamy, D. Pomegranate processing and value addition: A review. Indian Hortic. J., 2016, 6(1), 1-2.
Middha, S.K.; Usha, T.; Pande, V. A review on antihyperglycemic and antihepatoprotective activity of eco-friendly Punica granatum peel waste. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2013, 2013, 1-10.
[] [PMID: 23878603]
Viuda-Martos, M.; Fernández-López, J.; Pérez-Álvarez, J.A. Pomegranate and its many functional components as related to human health: A review. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., 2010, 9(6), 635-654.
[] [PMID: 33467822]
Prakash, C.V.; Prakash, I. Bioactive chemical constituents from pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice, seed and peel-a review. Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ., 2011, 1(1), 1-8.
Gigliobianco, M.R.; Cortese, M.; Nannini, S.; Di Nicolantonio, L.; Peregrina, D.V.; Lupidi, G.; Vitali, L.A.; Bocchietto, E.; Di Martino, P.; Censi, R. Chemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of the peel and male flower by-products of four varieties of Punica granatum L. cultivated in the marche region for their use in cosmetic products. Antioxidants, 2022, 11(4), 768.
[] [PMID: 35453453]
Ismail, T.; Sestili, P.; Akhtar, S. Pomegranate peel and fruit extracts: A review of potential anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2012, 143(2), 397-405.
[] [PMID: 22820239]
Abarghuei, M.J.; Rouzbehan, Y.; Salem, A.Z.M.; Zamiri, M.J. Nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation and performance of dairy cows fed pomegranate peel extract. Livest. Sci., 2013, 157(2-3), 452-461.
Chaubey, M.G.; Chauhan, A.P.; Chokshi, P.R.; Amin, R.S.; Patel, S.N.; Madamwar, D.; Rastogi, R.P.; Singh, N.K. Therapeutic potential of bioactive compounds from Punica granatum extracts against aging and complicity of FOXO orthologue DAF-16 in Caenorhabditis elegans. EXCLI J., 2021, 20, 80-98.
[] [PMID: 33510593]
Ganguly, S. Medicinal utility of pomegranate fruit in regular human diet: A brief review. IJFH, 2017, 3(1), 7-18.
Balli, D.; Cecchi, L.; Khatib, M.; Bellumori, M.; Cairone, F.; Carradori, S.; Zengin, G.; Cesa, S.; Innocenti, M.; Mulinacci, N. Characterization of arils juice and peel decoction of fifteen varieties of Punica granatum L.: A focus on anthocyanins, ellagitannins and polysaccharides. Antioxidants, 2020, 9(3), 238.
[] [PMID: 32183156]
Colombo, E.; Sangiovanni, E.; Dell’Agli, M. A review on the anti-inflammatory activity of pomegranate in the gastrointestinal tract. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2013, 2013, 1-11.
[] [PMID: 23573120]
Phane Quideau, S. Chemistry and biology of ellagitannins: An underestimated class of bioactive plant polyphenols. World Scientific; University of Bordeaux: France, 2009.
Cerdá, B.; Espín, J.C.; Parra, S.; Martínez, P.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A. The potent in vitro antioxidant ellagitannins from pomegranate juice are metabolised into bioavailable but poor antioxidant hydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one derivatives by the colonic microflora of healthy humans. Eur. J. Nutr., 2004, 43(4), 205-220.
[] [PMID: 15309440]
Fawole, O.A.; Opara, U.L. Stability of total phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity of extracts from pomegranate co-products subjected to in vitro digestion. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2016, 16(1), 358.
[] [PMID: 27618992]
Farag, R.S.; Abdel-Latif, M.S.; Emam, S.S.; Tawfeek, L.S. Phytochemical screening and polyphenol constituents of pomegranate peels and leave juices. Agric Soil Sci., 2014, 1(6), 86-93.
Lotfy, L.; Barakat, E. Utilization of pomegranate peels flour to improve sponge cake quality. J. Food Dairy Sci., 2018, 2018(0), 91-96.
Kushwaha, S.C.; Bera, M.B.; Kumar, P. Nutritional composition of detanninated and fresh pomegranate peel powder. IOSR J. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. Food Technol., 2013, 7(1), 38-42.
Mehder, A.O. Pomegranate peels effectiveness in improving the nutritional, physical and sensory characteristics of pan bread. Curr. Sci. Int., 2013, 2(2), 8-14.
Ismail, T.; Akhtar, S.; Riaz, M.; Ismail, A. Effect of pomegranate peel supplementation on nutritional, organoleptic and stability properties of cookies. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 2014, 65(6), 661-666.
[] [PMID: 24725173]
Ullah, N.; Ali, J.; Khan, F.A.; Khurram, M.; Hussain, A.; Rahman, I.U.; Rahman, Z.U.; Ullah, S. Proximate composition, minerals content, antibacterial and antifungal activity evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peels powder. Middle East J. Sci. Res., 2012, 11(3), 396-401.
Khan, S.; Patel, A.; Bhise, K.S. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel powder. J. Drug Deliv. Ther., 2017, 7(2), 81-84.
Ben Nasr, C.; Ayed, N.; Metche, M. Quantitative determination of the polyphenolic content of pomegranate peel. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 1996, 203(4), 374-378.
[] [PMID: 9123975]
Li, Y.; Ye, T.; Yang, F.; Hu, M.; Liang, L.; He, H.; Li, Z.; Zeng, A.; Li, Y.; Yao, Y.; Xie, Y.; An, Z.; Li, S. Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract exerts potent antitumor and anti-metastasis activity in thyroid cancer. RSC Advances, 2016, 6(87), 84523-84535.
Rubinovich, L.; Segev, B.; Habashi, R.; Con, P.; Amir, R. Establishment of Punica granatum L. peel cell culture to produce bioactive compounds. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult., 2019, 138(1), 131-140. [PCTOC]
Malviya, S. Arvind; Jha, A.; Hettiarachchy, N. Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of pomegranate peel extracts. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2014, 51(12), 4132-4137.
[] [PMID: 25477693]
Melgarejo-Sánchez, P.; Núñez-Gómez, D.; Martínez-Nicolás, J.J.; Hernández, F.; Legua, P.; Melgarejo, P. Pomegranate variety and pomegranate plant part, relevance from bioactive point of view: A review. Bioresour. Bioprocess., 2021, 8(1), 2.
Jung, J.S. Analysis of volatile compounds in the root peel, stem peel, and fruit peel of pomegranate (Punica granatum) by TD GC/MS. Inter. J. Biosci. Biotechnol., 2014, 6(3), 169-182.
Arun, K.B.; Jayamurthy, P.; Anusha, C.V.; Mahesh, S.K.; Nisha, P. Studies on activity guided fractionation of pomegranate peel extracts and its effect on antidiabetic and cardiovascular protection properties. J. Food Process. Preserv., 2017, 41(1), e13108.
Akhtar, S.; Ismail, T.; Fraternale, D.; Sestili, P. Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: Chemistry and food features. Food Chem., 2015, 174, 417-425.
[] [PMID: 25529700]
Olivas-Aguirre, F.; Rodrigo-García, J.; Martínez-Ruiz, N.; Cárdenas-Robles, A.; Mendoza-Díaz, S.; Álvarez-Parrilla, E.; González-Aguilar, G.; de la Rosa, L.; Ramos-Jiménez, A.; Wall-Medrano, A. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside: Physical-chemistry, foodomics and health effects. Molecules, 2016, 21(9), 1264.
[] [PMID: 27657039]
Zhu, F.; Yuan, Z.; Zhao, X.; Yin, Y.; Feng, L. Composition and contents of anthocyanins in different pomegranate cultivars. Acta Hortic., 2015, (1089), 35-41.
PubChem Database. Ellagic acid; , 2020. Available from:
Sun, Y.; Tao, X.; Men, X.; Xu, Z.; Wang, T. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of three major polyphenolic compounds in pomegranate peel: Ellagic acid, punicalin, and punicalagin. J. Integr. Agric., 2017, 16(8), 1808-1818.
Kahkeshani, N.; Farzaei, F.; Fotouhi, M.; Alavi, S.S.; Bahramsoltani, R.; Naseri, R.; Momtaz, S.; Abbasabadi, Z.; Rahimi, R.; Farzaei, M.H.; Bishayee, A. Pharmacological effects of gallic acid in health and diseases: A mechanistic review. Iran. J. Basic Med. Sci., 2019, 22(3), 225-237.
[] [PMID: 31156781]
Malaguti, M.; Angeloni, C.; Hrelia, S. Polyphenols in exercise performance and prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev., 2013, 2013(Oct), 1-9.
[] [PMID: 23983900]
Ghosh, D. Tannins from foods to combat diseases. Int. J. Pharma Res. Rev., 2015, 4(5), 40-44.
Jayaprakash, A.; Sangeetha, R. Phytochemical screening of Punica granatum Linn. peel extracts. J. Acad. Ind. Res., 2015, 4(5), 160-162.
Khaleel, A.I.; Sijam, K.; Rashid, T.S.; Bin Ahmad, K. Phytochemical determination and antibacterial activity of Punica granatum peel extracts against plant pathogenic bacteria. Am. J. Plant Sci., 2016, 7(1), 159-166.
Bhandary, S.K. N, S.K.; Bhat, V.S.; P, S.K.; Bekal, M.P. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of Punica granatum peel, whole fruit and seeds. J. Health All. Sci. NU, 2012, 2(4), 34-38.
Farag, S. Ultra-structural studies on the midgut of culexpipiens larvae treated with pomegranate peel extract, Punica granatum. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 2018, 48(1), 77-84.
Nitave, S.A.; Patil, V.A. Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of Punica granatum peel and its phytochemical screening. World J. Pharm. Res., 2014, 3(10), 505-512.
Elfalleh, W.; Hannachi, H.; Tlili, N.; Yahia, Y.; Nasri, N.; Ferchichi, A. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel, seed, leaf and flower. J. Med. Plants Res., 2012, 6(32), 4724-4730.
Naguib, D.M.; Tantawy, A.A. Anticancer effect of some fruits peels aqueous extracts. Orient. Pharm. Exp. Med., 2019, 19(4), 415-420.
Oualcadi, Y.; Sebban, M.F.; Berrekhis, F. Improvement of microwave‐assisted Soxhlet extraction of bioactive compounds applied to pomegranate peels. J. Food Process. Preserv., 2020, 44(5), e14409.
BenSaad, L.A.; Kim, K.H.; Quah, C.C.; Kim, W.R.; Shahimi, M. Anti-inflammatory potential of ellagic acid, gallic acid and punicalagin A&B isolated from Punica granatum. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2017, 17(1), 47.
[] [PMID: 28088220]
Mo, J.; Panichayupakaranant, P.; Kaewnopparat, N.; Nitiruangjaras, A.; Reanmongkol, W. Topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of standardized pomegranate rind extract in comparison with its marker compound ellagic acid in vivo. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2013, 148(3), 901-908.
[] [PMID: 23743057]
Mastrogiovanni, F.; Mukhopadhya, A.; Lacetera, N.; Ryan, M.; Romani, A.; Bernini, R.; Sweeney, T. Anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate peel extracts on in vitro human intestinal caco-2 cells and ex vivo porcine colonic tissue explants. Nutrients, 2019, 11(3), 548.
[] [PMID: 30841512]
Gupta, E.; Shakyawar, S.; Sundaram, S. Therapeutic and nutraceutical potential of bioactive compounds in Aegle marmelos (L.): An overview. Curr. Nutr. Food Sci., 2019, 15(4), 306-317.
Singh, R.P.; Chidambara Murthy, K.N.; Jayaprakasha, G.K. Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50(1), 81-86.
[] [PMID: 11754547]
Mansour, E.; Khaled, A.B.; Lachiheb, B.; Abid, M.; Bachar, K.; Ferchichi, A. Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activities of Peel Extract from Tunisian Pomegranate; , 2018. Available from:
Zaki, S.A.; Abdelatif, S.H.; Abdelmohsen, N.R.; Ismail, F.A. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peels. ETP Inter. J. Food Eng., 2015, 1(2), 73-76.
El-Hadary, A.E.; Ramadan, M.F. Phenolic profiles, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract. J. Food Biochem., 2019, 43(4), e12803.
[] [PMID: 31353600]
Li, Y.; Guo, C.; Yang, J.; Wei, J.; Xu, J.; Cheng, S. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract. Food Chem., 2006, 96(2), 254-260.
Harzallah, A.; Hammami, M. Kępczyńska, M.A.; Hislop, D.C.; Arch, J.R.S.; Cawthorne, M.A.; Zaibi, M.S. Comparison of potential preventive effects of pomegranate flower, peel and seed oil on insulin resistance and inflammation in high-fat and high-sucrose diet-induced obesity mice model. Arch. Physiol. Biochem., 2016, 122(2), 75-87.
[] [PMID: 26822470]
Song, B.; Li, J.; Li, J. Pomegranate peel extract polyphenols induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells by mitochondrial pathway. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2016, 93, 158-166.
[] [PMID: 27120393]
Li, J.; Zhang, F.; Wang, S. A polysaccharide from pomegranate peels induces the apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Tumour Biol., 2014, 35(8), 7475-7482.
[] [PMID: 24789431]
Malik, A.; Mukhtar, H. Prostate cancer prevention through pomegranate fruit. Cell Cycle, 2006, 5(4), 371-373.
[] [PMID: 16479165]
Dikmen, M.; Ozturk, N.; Ozturk, Y. The antioxidant potency of Punica granatum L. Fruit peel reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on breast cancer. J. Med. Food, 2011, 14(12), 1638-1646.
[] [PMID: 21861726]
Cheshomi, H.; Bahrami, A.R.; Rafatpanah, H.; Matin, M.M. The effects of ellagic acid and other pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) derivatives on human gastric cancer AGS cells. Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 2022, 41.
[] [PMID: 35179410]
Cinthura, C.; Gayathri, R.; Priya, V. Genotoxicity analysis of mace (MyristicaFragrans) on oral cancer cell line by DNA fragmentation. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 2017, 9(2), 205.
Mohamed, S.A.; Upreti, S.; Rajendra, S.V.; Dang, R. Genotoxicity: Mechanisms, testing guidelines and methods. Global J. Pharm. Pharmceut. Sci., 2017, 1(5), 133-138.
Negi, P.S.; Jayaprakasha, G.K.; Jena, B.S. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of pomegranate peel extracts. Food Chem., 2003, 80(3), 393-397.
Ghasemian, A. Seddigheh Mehrabian; Ahmad Majd, Peel extracts of two Iranian cultivars of pomegranate (Punica granatum) have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2006, 9(7), 1402-1405.
Abdou, H.S. Effect of pomegranate pretreatment on genotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in male rats. J. Med. Plants Res., 2012, 6(17), 3370-3380.
Elwej, A.; Ben Salah, G.; Kallel, C.; Fakhfakh, F.; Zeghal, N.; Ben Amara, I. Protective effects of pomegranate peel against hematotoxicity, chromosomal aberrations, and genotoxicity induced by barium chloride in adult rats. Pharm. Biol., 2016, 54(6), 964-974.
[] [PMID: 26971618]
Zahin, M.; Aqil, F.; Ahmad, I. Broad spectrum antimutagenic activity of antioxidant active fraction of Punica granatum L. peel extracts. Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen., 2010, 703(2), 99-107.
[] [PMID: 20708098]
Uluman, E.; Aksu Kiliçle, P. The investigation of the possible antigenotoxic in vivo effects of pomegranate(Punica granatum L.) peel extract on mitomycin-C genotoxicity. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 2020, 44(2), 382-390.
Baliga, M.S.; Shivashankara, A.R.; Shetty, C.B.; Thilakchand, K.R.; Periera, N.; Palatty, P.L. Antidiabetic effects of Punica granatum L,(Pomegranate): A review. Bioact. Food Diet. Interv. Diabetes, 2012, 355-369.
International diabetes federation, Diabetes facts and figures.. 2019. Available from:
Parmar, H.S.; Kar, A. Antidiabetic potential of Citrus sinensis and Punica granatum peel extracts in alloxan treated male mice. Biofactors, 2007, 31(1), 17-24.
[] [PMID: 18806305]
Bagheri, S.; Khorramabadi, R.M.; Assadollahi, V.; Khosravi, P.; Cheraghi Venol, A.; Veiskerami, S.; Ahmadvand, H. The effects of pomegranate peel extract on the gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes in a rat model of alloxan-induced diabetes. Arch. Physiol. Biochem., 2021, 1-9.
[] [PMID: 33524274]
Khalil, E.A.M. Antidiabetic effect of an aqueous extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peels in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. Egypt. J. Hosp. Med., 2004, 16(1), 92-99.
Jyothsna, D.K. The study of effect of pomegranate juice on type 2 diabetes mellietus. IOSR J. Dent. Med. Sci., 2017, 16(4), 28-30.
Belkacem, N.; Djaziri, R.; El-Haci, I.A.; Lahfa, F.; Boucherit, K. Antihyperglycaemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract from Punica granatum L. peels in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and its potent α-amylase inhibitory. Pharma Chem., 2010, 2(6), 416-428.
Pottathil, S.; Nain, P.; Morsy, M.A.; Kaur, J.; Al-Dhubiab, B.E.; Jaiswal, S.; Nair, A.B. Mechanisms of antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves in nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in rats. Plants, 2020, 9(11), 1609.
[] [PMID: 33228177]
Kumar, Y.R.; Narayanaswamy, H.D.; Rao, S.; Satyanarayana, M.L.; Nadoor, P.; Rathnamma, D. Effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice and peel extract on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Pharma Innov. J., 2022, 11(1), 970-977.
dos Santos, R.L.; Dellacqua, L.O.; Delgado, N.T.B.; Rouver, W.N.; Podratz, P.L.; Lima, L.C.F.; Piccin, M.P.C.; Meyrelles, S.S.; Mauad, H.; Graceli, J.B.; Moyses, M.R. Pomegranate peel extract attenuates oxidative stress by decreasing coronary angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in hypertensive female rats. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A, 2016, 79(21), 998-1007.
[] [PMID: 27710705]
Hernández-Corroto, E.; Plaza, M.; Marina, M.L.; García, M.C. Sustainable extraction of proteins and bioactive substances from pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) using pressurized liquids and deep eutectic solvents. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol., 2020, 60, 102314.
Rosenblat, M.; Volkova, N.; Coleman, R.; Aviram, M. Pomegranate byproduct administration to apolipoprotein e-deficient mice attenuates atherosclerosis development as a result of decreased macrophage oxidative stress and reduced cellular uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54(5), 1928-1935.
[] [PMID: 16506855]
Chidambara Murthy, K.N.; Jayaprakasha, G.K.; Singh, R.P. Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract using in vivo models. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50(17), 4791-4795.
[] [PMID: 12166961]
Moneim, A.E.; Dkhil, M.A.; Al-Quraishy, S. Studies on the effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice and peel on liver and kidney in adult male rats. J. Med. Plants Res., 2011, 5(20), 5083-5088.
Alsallami, A.; AlBideri, A.; Alsaaedi, S. Hepatoprotective effect of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) against thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis. Egypt. J. Exp. Biol. Zool., 2018, 14(1), 1.
Ahmed, M.M.; Ali, S.E. Protective effect of pomegranate peel ethanol extract against ferric nitrilotriacetate induced renal oxidative damage in rats. J. Cell Mol. Biol., 2010, 7(2), 35-43.
Karwasra, R.; Kalra, P.; Gupta, Y.K.; Saini, D.; Kumar, A.; Singh, S. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of pomegranate rind extract to ameliorate cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Food Funct., 2016, 7(7), 3091-3101.
[] [PMID: 27273121]
Khan, J.A.; Hanee, S. Antibacterial properties of Punica granatum peels. Int. J. Appl. Biol. Pharm. Technol., 2011, 2(3), 23-27.
Gosset-Erard, C.; Zhao, M.; Lordel-Madeleine, S.; Ennahar, S. Identification of punicalagin as the bioactive compound behind the antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peels. Food Chem., 2021, 352, 129396.
[] [PMID: 33652195]
Singh, B.; Singh, J.P.; Kaur, A.; Singh, N. Antimicrobial potential of pomegranate peel: a review. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2019, 54(4), 959-965.
Chen, J.; Liao, C.; Ouyang, X. Kahramanoğlu, I.; Gan, Y.; Li, M. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel and its applications on food preservation. J. Food Qual., 2020, 2020, 1-8.
Abdollahzadeh, S.H.; Mashouf, R.; Mortazavi, H.; Moghaddam, M.; Roozbahani, N.; Vahedi, M. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Punica granatum peel extracts against oral pathogens. J. Dent. (Tehran), 2011, 8(1), 1-6.
[PMID: 21998800]
Abdul, Q.; Kakar, A.U.R.; Naqeebullah, K. Samiullah; Abdul, H.; Rehana, K.; Fazal-Ur-Rehman. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, and clinical effects with elemental contents of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extracts: A review. Baghdad J. Biochem. Appl. Biol. Sci., 2021, 2(1), 21-28.
Nuamsetti, T.; Dechayuenyong, P.; Tantipaibulvut, S. Antibacterial activity of pomegranate fruit peels and arils. Sci. Asia, 2012, 38(3), 319-322.
Foss, S.R.; Nakamura, C.V.; Ueda-Nakamura, T.; Cortez, D.A.G.; Endo, E.H.; Dias Filho, B.P. Antifungal activity of pomegranate peel extract and isolated compound punicalagin against dermatophytes. Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob., 2014, 13(1), 32.
[] [PMID: 25260038]
Tayel, A.A.; El-Baz, A.F.; Salem, M.F.; El-Hadary, M.H. Potential applications of pomegranate peel extract for the control of citrus green mould. J. Plant Dis. Prot., 2009, 116(6), 252-256.
Anibal, P.C.; Peixoto, I.T.A.; Foglio, M.A.; Höfling, J.F. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp. Braz. J. Microbiol., 2013, 44(3), 839-848.
[] [PMID: 24516425]
Koothati, R.K.; Bhavana, S.; Maloth, K.N.; Chintamaneni, R.; Kumar, K.N.; Anusha, N. Estimation of invitro antifungal activity of ethanolic crude extract of punicagranatum peel and woodfordiafruticosa leaves on isolates of candida species. J. Indian Acad. Oral Med. Radiol., 2022, 34(1), 5.
Ibrahium, M.I. Efficiency of pomegranate peel extract as antimicrobial, antioxidant and protective agents. World J. Agric. Sci., 2010, 6(4), 338-344.
Kumar, K.A.; Vijayalakshmi, K. In vitro anti-microbial activity and phytochemical analysis of selected fruit wastes. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 2013, 2(5), 196-204.
Patel, A.; Shadab, K.; Bhise, K.S. Antifungal and antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel powder. World J. Pharm. Res., 2017, 6, 1424-1430.
Jaisinghani, R.N.; Makhwana, S.; Kanojia, A. Study on antibacterial and flavonoid content of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel. Microbiol. Res. (Pavia), 2018, 9(1), 6-9.
International Scientific Association for Probiotic and Prebiotics (ISAPP). 2016.
Gibson, G.R.; Hutkins, R.; Sanders, M.E.; Prescott, S.L.; Reimer, R.A.; Salminen, S.J.; Scott, K.; Stanton, C.; Swanson, K.S.; Cani, P.D.; Verbeke, K.; Reid, G. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics. Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2017, 14(8), 491-502.
[] [PMID: 28611480]
Al-Hindi, R.R.; Abd El Ghani, S. Production of functional fermented milk beverages supplemented with pomegranate peel extract and probiotic lactic acid bacteria. J. Food Qual., 2020, 2020, 1-9.
Chan, C.L.; Gan, R.; Shah, N.P.; Corke, H. Enhancing antioxidant capacity of Lactobacillus acidophilus-fermented milk fortified with pomegranate peel extracts. Food Biosci., 2018, 26, 185-192.
Begum, M.; Ali, Z.; Toijam, R. Acceptability scores and enhancement of nutritional quality parameters of buttermilk enriched with pomegranate peel powder. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 2018, 7(12), 3271-3275.
Althunibat, O.Y.; Al-Mustafa, A.H.; Tarawneh, K.; Khleifat, K.M.; Ridzwan, B.H.; Qaralleh, H.N. Protective role of Punica granatum L. peel extract against oxidative damage in experimental diabetic rats. Process Biochem., 2010, 45(4), 581-585.
Ranjitha, J.; Bhuvaneshwari, G.; Jagadeesh, S.L. Effect of different treatments on quality of nutri-enriched cookies fortified with pomegranate peel powder and defatted soybean flour. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 2018, 7(2), 3680-3688.
Mastrodi Salgado, J.; Baroni Ferreira, T.R.; de Oliveira Biazotto, F.; dos Santos Dias, C.T. Increased antioxidant content in juice enriched with dried extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 2012, 67(1), 39-43.
[] [PMID: 22392496]
Çam, M. Erdoğan, F.; Aslan, D.; Dinç, M. Enrichment of functional properties of ice cream with pomegranate by-products. J. Food Sci., 2013, 78(10), C1543-C1550.
[] [PMID: 24102443]
Altunkaya, A.; Hedegaard, R.V.; Brimer, L.; Gökmen, V.; Skibsted, L.H. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder. Food Funct., 2013, 4(5), 722-727.
[] [PMID: 23429604]
Martins, Z.E.; Pinto, E.; Almeida, A.A.; Pinho, O.; Ferreira, I.M.P.L.V.O. Fibre fortification of wheat bread: Impact on mineral composition and bioaccessibility. Food Funct., 2017, 8(5), 1979-1987.
[] [PMID: 28485441]
El-Said, M.M.; Haggag, H.F.; Fakhr El-Din, H.M.; Gad, A.S.; Farahat, A.M. Antioxidant activities and physical properties of stirred yoghurt fortified with pomegranate peel extracts. Ann. Agric. Sci., 2014, 59(2), 207-212.
Thorat, A.V.; Kardile, N.B.; Wagh, R.P. Physio-chemical and sensory analysis of noodles fortified with cowpea and pomegranate peel powder. Int. J. Chem. Stud., 2018, 6(4), 3051-3054.
Abid, M.; Yaich, H.; Hidouri, H.; Attia, H.; Ayadi, M.A. Effect of substituted gelling agents from pomegranate peel on colour, textural and sensory properties of pomegranate jam. Food Chem., 2018, 239, 1047-1054.
[] [PMID: 28873521]
Sharayei, P.; Azarpazhooh, E.; Ramaswamy, H.S. Effect of microencapsulation on antioxidant and antifungal properties of aqueous extract of pomegranate peel. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2020, 57(2), 723-733.
[] [PMID: 32116381]
Topkaya, C.; Isik, F. Effects of pomegranate peel supplementation on chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of muffin cakes. J. Food Process. Preserv., 2019, 43(6), e13868.
Tharshini, G. Organoleptic and chemical characteristics of soybean and pomegranate peel powder supplemented cakes. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 2018, 7(2), 35-39.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy