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Current Organic Synthesis


ISSN (Print): 1570-1794
ISSN (Online): 1875-6271


The Synthetic Approaches for Preparation of Indigo and Applications in Denim Industry

Author(s): Gökhan Kaplan and Zeynel Seferoğlu*

Volume 20, Issue 4, 2023

Published on: 17 October, 2022

Page: [361 - 364] Pages: 4

DOI: 10.2174/1570179419666220830091956


This paper describes indigo chemistry and its brief scientific history beginning with the first characterization and chemical synthesis of indigo via various precursors such as isatin, cinnamic acid, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, anthranilic acid, N-phenylglycine, aniline, and indole. Furthermore, alternative methods such as eco-friendly microbial synthesis of indigo using a variety of enzymes are reported: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, flavin-containing monooxygenases, and unspecific peroxygenases. Subsequently, the application of indigo in the denim industry, reduction methods (chemical, electrochemical, enzymatic and catalytic) and dyeing methods (all parameters in dyeing, ring dye) are discussed. In addition, the main reason for the use of indigo in the denim industry is briefly explained.

Keywords: Ancient dye, indigo, reduction, enzymatic synthesis, vat dye, oxidation, ring dye, fashion.

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