Nanomaterials often show very different sizes, shapes, and stability properties. They also facilitate electron transfer and can be easily modified with chemical ligands and biomolecules. These properties, combined with the ease of miniaturizing nanoscales and their application to sensing devices, make nanomaterials well suited for essential chemical/biochemical sensing applications.
Nanomaterials are superior materials not only due to their structural properties but also their functional properties. Using various methods makes it possible to change the available and stack properties.
Nano-sized materials are preferred in modern technological systems because they have a large surface area and different optical and electronic properties.
In this study, electrochemical biosensor applications based on sensors modified with various nanomaterials were evaluated in terms of analytical parameters, such as detection limit, linear range, and features, such as easy fabrication, storage stability, and reproducibility. Besides, the advantages of using nanomaterials were examined under 6 different headings as enzyme biosensors, immunosensors, nucleic acid sensors, cell, phage, and aptasensors.