Smoking habits represent a cardiovascular risk factor with a tremendous impact on health. Other than damaging differentiated and functional cells of the cardiovascular system, they also negatively affect reparative mechanisms, such as those involved in cardiac fibrosis and in endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) activation. In recent years, alternative smoking devices, dubbed modified tobacco risk products (MRPs), have been introduced, but their precise impact on human health is still under evaluation. Also, they have not been characterized yet about the possible negative effects on cardiovascular reparative and regenerative cells, such as EPCs or pluripotent stem cells. In this perspective, we critically review the still scarce available data on the effects of MRPs on molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular repair and regeneration.
Keywords: Endothelial progenitor cells, pluripotent stem cells, electronic cigarettes, modified risk products, cardiac fibrosis, cardiovascular regeneration.