Generic placeholder image

Current Radiopharmaceuticals


ISSN (Print): 1874-4710
ISSN (Online): 1874-4729

Review Article

PET/CT and the Response to Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer

Author(s): Laura Evangelista*, Matteo Sepulcri and Giulia Pasello

Volume 13, Issue 3, 2020

Page: [177 - 184] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1874471013666191220105449


Objective: In recent years, the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors has significantly changed the outcome of patients affected by lung cancer and cutaneous melanoma. Although the clinical advantages, the selection of patients and the evaluation of response to immunotherapy remain unclear, the immune-related Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (irRECIST) was proposed as an update of the RECIST criteria for the assessment of response to immunotherapy. However, morphological images cannot predict early response to therapy that represents a challenge in clinical practice. 18F-FDG PET/CT before and after immunotherapy has an indeterminate role, demonstrating ambiguous results due to inflammatory effects secondary to activation of the immune system. The aim of the present review was to analyze the role of PET/CT as a guide for immunotherapy, by analyzing the current status and future perspectives.

Methods: A literature search was conducted in order to select all papers that discussed the role of PET/CT with FDG or other tracers in the evaluation or prediction of response to immunotherapy in lung cancer patients.

Results: Many papers are now available. Many clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy in lung cancer patients. FDG PET/CT can be used for the prediction of response to immunotherapy, while its utility for the evaluation of response is not still clearly reported. Moreover, the standardization of FDG PET/CT interpretation is missing and different criteria, such as information, have been investigated until now.

Conclusion: The utility of FDG PET/CT for patients with lung cancer undergoing immunotherapies is still preliminary and not well addressed. New agents for PET are promising, but large clinical trials are mandatory.

Keywords: Immunotherapy, 18F-FDG, PET/CT, response to therapy, lung cancer, immunotherapy.

Graphical Abstract
Brahmer, J.; Reckamp, K.L.; Baas, P.; Crinò, L.; Eberhardt, W.E.; Poddubskaya, E.; Antonia, S.; Pluzanski, A.; Vokes, E.E.; Holgado, E.; Waterhouse, D.; Ready, N.; Gainor, J.; Arén Frontera, O.; Havel, L.; Steins, M.; Garassino, M.C.; Aerts, J.G.; Domine, M.; Paz-Ares, L.; Reck, M.; Baudelet, C.; Harbison, C.T.; Lestini, B.; Spigel, D.R. Nivolumab versus Docetaxel in Advanced Squamous-Cell Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 2015, 373(2), 123-135.
[] [PMID: 26028407]
Borghaei, H.; Paz-Ares, L.; Horn, L.; Spigel, D.R.; Steins, M.; Ready, N.E.; Chow, L.Q.; Vokes, E.E.; Felip, E.; Holgado, E.; Barlesi, F.; Kohlhäufl, M.; Arrieta, O.; Burgio, M.A.; Fayette, J.; Lena, H.; Poddubskaya, E.; Gerber, D.E.; Gettinger, S.N.; Rudin, C.M.; Rizvi, N.; Crinò, L.; Blumenschein, G.R., Jr; Antonia, S.J.; Dorange, C.; Harbison, C.T.; Graf Finckenstein, F.; Brahmer, J.R. Nivolumab versus Docetaxel in Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 2015, 373(17), 1627-1639.
[] [PMID: 26412456]
Tanvetyanon, T.; Gray, J.E.; Antonia, S.J. PD-1 checkpoint blockade alone or combined PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade as immunotherapy for lung cancer? Expert Opin. Biol. Ther., 2017, 17(3), 305-312.
[] [PMID: 28064556]
Hodi, F.S.O.D.S.; O’Day, S.J.; McDermott, D.F.; Weber, R.W.; Sosman, J.A.; Haanen, J.B.; Gonzalez, R.; Robert, C.; Schadendorf, D.; Hassel, J.C.; Akerley, W.; van den Eertwegh, A.J.; Lutzky, J.; Lorigan, P.; Vaubel, J.M.; Linette, G.P.; Hogg, D.; Ottensmeier, C.H.; Lebbé, C.; Peschel, C.; Quirt, I.; Clark, J.I.; Wolchok, J.D.; Weber, J.S.; Tian, J.; Yellin, M.J.; Nichol, G.M.; Hoos, A.; Urba, W.J. Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. N. Engl. J. Med., 2010, 363(8), 711-723.
[] [PMID: 20525992]
Robert, C.; Long, G.V.; Brady, B.; Dutriaux, C.; Maio, M.; Mortier, L.; Hassel, J.C.; Rutkowski, P.; McNeil, C.; Kalinka-Warzocha, E.; Savage, K.J.; Hernberg, M.M.; Lebbé, C.; Charles, J.; Mihalcioiu, C.; Chiarion-Sileni, V.; Mauch, C.; Cognetti, F.; Arance, A.; Schmidt, H.; Schadendorf, D.; Gogas, H.; Lundgren-Eriksson, L.; Horak, C.; Sharkey, B.; Waxman, I.M.; Atkinson, V.; Ascierto, P.A. Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation. N. Engl. J. Med., 2015, 372(4), 320-330.
[] [PMID: 25399552]
Larkin, J.; Chiarion-Sileni, V.; Gonzalez, R.; Grob, J.J.; Cowey, C.L.; Lao, C.D.; Schadendorf, D.; Dummer, R.; Smylie, M.; Rutkowski, P.; Ferrucci, P.F.; Hill, A.; Wagstaff, J.; Carlino, M.S.; Haanen, J.B.; Maio, M.; Marquez-Rodas, I.; McArthur, G.A.; Ascierto, P.A.; Long, G.V.; Callahan, M.K.; Postow, M.A.; Grossmann, K.; Sznol, M.; Dreno, B.; Bastholt, L.; Yang, A.; Rollin, L.M.; Horak, C.; Hodi, F.S.; Wolchok, J.D. Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or Monotherapy in Untreated Melanoma. N. Engl. J. Med., 2015, 373(1), 23-34.
[] [PMID: 26027431]
Rosenberg, J.E.H-C.J.; Hoffman-Censits, J.; Powles, T.; van der Heijden, M.S.; Balar, A.V.; Necchi, A.; Dawson, N.; O’Donnell, P.H.; Balmanoukian, A.; Loriot, Y.; Srinivas, S.; Retz, M.M.; Grivas, P.; Joseph, R.W.; Galsky, M.D.; Fleming, M.T.; Petrylak, D.P.; Perez-Gracia, J.L.; Burris, H.A.; Castellano, D.; Canil, C.; Bellmunt, J.; Bajorin, D.; Nickles, D.; Bourgon, R.; Frampton, G.M.; Cui, N.; Mariathasan, S.; Abidoye, O.; Fine, G.D.; Dreicer, R. Atezolizumab in patients with locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma who have progressed following treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy: a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Lancet, 2016, 387(10031), 1909-1920.
[] [PMID: 26952546]
Anantharaman, A.; Friedlander, T.; Lu, D.; Krupa, R.; Premasekharan, G.; Hough, J.; Edwards, M.; Paz, R.; Lindquist, K.; Graf, R.; Jendrisak, A.; Louw, J.; Dugan, L.; Baird, S.; Wang, Y.; Dittamore, R.; Paris, P.L. programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in muscle invasive and metastatic bladder cancer patients. BMC Cancer, 2016, 16(1), 744.
[] [PMID: 27658492]
Motzer, R.J.R.B.; Rini, B.I.; McDermott, D.F.; Redman, B.G.; Kuzel, T.M.; Harrison, M.R.; Vaishampayan, U.N.; Drabkin, H.A.; George, S.; Logan, T.F.; Margolin, K.A.; Plimack, E.R.; Lambert, A.M.; Waxman, I.M.; Hammers, H.J. Nivolumab for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results of a randomized phase II Trial. J. Clin. Oncol., 2015, 33(13), 1430-1437.
[] [PMID: 25452452]
Brahmer, J.R.; Govindan, R.; Anders, R.A.; Antonia, S.J.; Sagorsky, S.; Davies, M.J.; Dubinett, S.M.; Ferris, A.; Gandhi, L.; Garon, E.B.; Hellmann, M.D.; Hirsch, F.R.; Malik, S.; Neal, J.W.; Papadimitrakopoulou, V.A.; Rimm, D.L.; Schwartz, L.H.; Sepesi, B.; Yeap, B.Y.; Rizvi, N.A.; Herbst, R.S. The society for immunotherapy of cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). J. Immunother. Cancer, 2018, 6(1), 75.
[] [PMID: 30012210]
Nadal, E.M.B.; Domine, M.; Garcia-Campelo, R.; Cobo, M.; Felip, E. Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors in non-small lung cancer: insights from long-term survivors. Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 2019, 68(3), 341-352.
Subbiah, V.; Chuang, H.H.; Gambhire, D.; Kairemo, K. Defining clinical response criteria and early response criteria for precision oncology: current state-of-the-art and future perspectives. Diagnostics (Basel), 2017, 7(1), 7.
[] [PMID: 28212290]
Wong, A.N.M.; McArthur, G.A.; Hofman, M.S.; Hicks, R.J. The advantages and challenges of using FDG PET/CT for response assessment in melanoma in the era of targeted agents and immunotherapy. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2017, 44(Suppl. 1), 67-77.
[] [PMID: 28389693]
Cho, S.Y.L.E.; Lipson, E.J. Im, H.J.; Rowe, S.P.; Gonzalez, E.M.; Blackford, A.; Chirindel, A.; Pardoll, D.M.; Topalian, S.L.; Wahl, R.L. Prediction of response to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy using early-time-point 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with advanced melanoma. J. Nucl. Med., 2017, 58(9), 1421-1428.
[] [PMID: 28360208]
Kaira, K.; Higuchi, T.; Naruse, I.; Arisaka, Y.; Tokue, A.; Altan, B.; Suda, S.; Mogi, A.; Shimizu, K.; Sunaga, N.; Hisada, T.; Kitano, S.; Obinata, H.; Yokobori, T.; Mori, K.; Nishiyama, M.; Tsushima, Y.; Asao, T. Metabolic activity by 18F-FDG-PET/CT is predictive of early response after nivolumab in previously treated NSCLC. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2018, 45(1), 56-66.
[] [PMID: 28828507]
Herbst, R.S.B.P.; Baas, P.; Kim, D.W.; Felip, E.; Pérez-Gracia, J.L.; Han, J.Y.; Molina, J.; Kim, J.H.; Arvis, C.D.; Ahn, M.J.; Majem, M.; Fidler, M.J.; de Castro, G., Jr; Garrido, M.; Lubiniecki, G.M.; Shentu, Y. Im, E.; Dolled-Filhart, M.; Garon, E.B. Pembrolizumab versus docetaxel for previously treated, PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-010): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 2016, 387(10027), 1540-1550.
[] [PMID: 26712084]
Rittmeyer, A.; Barlesi, F.; Waterkamp, D.; Park, K.; Ciardiello, F.; von Pawel, J.; Gadgeel, S.M.; Hida, T.; Kowalski, D.M.; Dols, M.C.; Cortinovis, D.L.; Leach, J.; Polikoff, J.; Barrios, C.; Kabbinavar, F.; Frontera, O.A.; De Marinis, F.; Turna, H.; Lee, J.S.; Ballinger, M.; Kowanetz, M.; He, P.; Chen, D.S.; Sandler, A.; Gandara, D.R. OAK Study Group Atezolizumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (OAK): a phase 3, open-label, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 2017, 389(10066), 255-265.
[]] [PMID: 27979383]
Garon, E.B.R.N.; Rizvi, N.A.; Hui, R.; Leighl, N.; Balmanoukian, A.S.; Eder, J.P.; Patnaik, A.; Aggarwal, C.; Gubens, M.; Horn, L.; Carcereny, E.; Ahn, M.J.; Felip, E.; Lee, J.S.; Hellmann, M.D.; Hamid, O.; Goldman, J.W.; Soria, J.C.; Dolled-Filhart, M.; Rutledge, R.Z.; Zhang, J.; Lunceford, J.K.; Rangwala, R.; Lubiniecki, G.M.; Roach, C.; Emancipator, K.; Gandhi, L. KEYNOTE-001 investigators pembrolizumab for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 2015, 372(21), 2018-2028.
[] [PMID: 25891174]
Reck, M.; Rodríguez-Abreu, D.; Robinson, A.G.; Hui, R.; Csőszi, T.; Fülöp, A.; Gottfried, M.; Peled, N.; Tafreshi, A.; Cuffe, S.; O’Brien, M.; Rao, S.; Hotta, K.; Leiby, M.A.; Lubiniecki, G.M.; Shentu, Y.; Rangwala, R.; Brahmer, J.R. KEYNOTE-024 Investigators Pembrolizumab versus Chemotherapy for PD-L1-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 2016, 375(19), 1823-1833.
[] [PMID: 27718847]
Weller, A.; O’Brien, M.E.R.; Ahmed, M.; Popat, S.; Bhosle, J.; McDonald, F.; Yap, T.A.; Du, Y.; Vlahos, I.; deSouza, N.M. Mechanism and non-mechanism based imaging biomarkers for assessing biological response to treatment in non-small cell lung cancer. Eur. J. Cancer, 2016, 59, 65-78.
[] [PMID: 27016624]
18F-FDG PET early response evaluation of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy. J. Nucl. Med., 2013, 54, 1528-1534.
Na, F.; Wang, J.; Li, C.; Deng, L.; Xue, J.; Lu, Y. Primary tumor standardized uptake value measured on F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is of prediction value for survival and local control in non-small-cell lung cancer receiving radiotherapy: meta-analysis. J. Thorac. Oncol., 2014, 9(6), 834-842.
[] [PMID: 24787963]
Yossi, S.; Krhili, S.; Muratet, J.P.; Septans, A.L.; Campion, L.; Denis, F. Early assessment of metabolic response by 18F-FDG PET during concomitant radiochemotherapy of non-small cell lung carcinoma is associated with survival: a retrospective single-center study. Clin. Nucl. Med., 2015, 40(4), e215-e221.
[] [PMID: 25546211]
Adams, M.C.T.T.; Turkington, T.G.; Wilson, J.M.; Wong, T.Z. A systematic review of the factors affecting accuracy of SUV measurements. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol., 2010, 195(2), 310-320.
[] [PMID: 20651185]
Boellaard, R.R.B. Standards for PET image acquisition and quantitative data analysis. J. Nucl. Med., 2009, 50(Suppl. 1), 11S-20S.
[] [PMID: 19380405]
Boellaard, R.R.B. Need for standardization of 18F-FDG PET/CT for treatment response assessments. J. Nucl. Med., 2011, 52(Suppl. 2), 93S-100S.
[] [PMID: 22144561]
Young, H.; Baum, R.; Cremerius, U.; Herholz, K.; Hoekstra, O.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Pruim, J.; Price, P. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) PET Study Group. Measurement of clinical and subclinical tumour response using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography: review and 1999 EORTC recommendations. Eur. J. Cancer, 1999, 35(13), 1773-1782.
[] [PMID: 10673991]
Wahl, R.L.J.H.; Jacene, H.; Kasamon, Y.; Lodge, M.A. From RECIST to PERCIST: Evolving Considerations for PET response criteria in solid tumors. J. Nucl. Med., 2009, 50(Suppl. 1), 122S-150S.
[] [PMID: 19403881]
Zasadny, K.R.K.P.; Kison, P.V.; Francis, I.R.; Wahl, R.L. FDG-PET Determination of Metabolically Active Tumor Volume and Comparison with CT. Clin. Positron Imaging, 1998, 1(2), 123-129.
[] [PMID: 14516601]
Sugawara, Y.; Zasadny, K.R.; Neuhoff, A.W.; Wahl, R.L. Reevaluation of the standardized uptake value for FDG: variations with body weight and methods for correction. Radiology, 1999, 213(2), 521-525.
[] [PMID: 10551235]
Evangelista L dJM, Del Vecchio S, Cai W.: The new era of cancer immunotherapy: what can molecular imaging do to help? Clin. Transl. Imaging, 2017, 2017, 299-301.
Eshghi, N.; Lundeen, T.F.; Kuo, P.H. Dynamic Adaptation of Tumor Immune Response With Nivolumab Demonstrated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. Clin. Nucl. Med., 2018, 43(2), 114-116.
[] [PMID: 29261621]
Higuchi, M.O.Y.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamaura, T.; Fukuhara, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Suzuki, H. FDG-PET in the evaluation of response to nivolumab in recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. World J. Surg. Oncol., 2016, 14, 238.
Curioni-Fontecedro, A.; Ickenberg, C.; Franzen, D.; Rogler, G.; Burger, I.A.; van den Broek, M. Diffuse pseudoprogression in a patient with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer treated with Nivolumab. Ann. Oncol., 2017, 28(8), 2040-2041.
[] [PMID: 28838208]
Fakhri, G.; Akel, R.; Salem, Z.; Tawil, A.; Tfayli, A. Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Activation following Neoadjuvant Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy Combination Therapy in a Patient with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report. Case Rep. Oncol., 2017, 10(3), 1070-1075.
[] [PMID: 29515398]
Fredrickson, J.C.J.; Funke, R.; Sanabria, S.; Weber, W.; de Crespigny, A. Utility of FDG-PET in immunotherapy: results fro a phase II study of NSCLC patients undergoing therapy with the PD-L1 inhibitor, atezolizumab (MPDL3280A). J. Nucl. Med., 2016, 57(Suppl. 2), 134.
Kirienko, M.S.M.; Chiti, A. Hodgkin Lymphoma and imaging in the era of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Clin. Transl. Imaging, 2018, 6, 417-427.
Birnbaum, M.R.M.M.; Ma, M.W.; Fleisig, S.; Packer, S.; Amin, B.D.; Jacobson, M.; McLellan, B.N. Nivolumab-related cutaneous sarcoidosis in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma. JAAD Case Rep., 2017, 3(3), 208-211.
[] [PMID: 28443311]
Suozzi, K.C.S.M.; Stahl, M.; Ko, C.J.; Chiang, A.; Gettinger, S.N.; Siegel, M.D.; Bunick, C.G. Immune-related sarcoidosis observed in combination ipilimumab and nivolumab therapy. JAAD Case Rep., 2016, 2(3), 264-268.
[] [PMID: 27486590]
Eshghi, N.; Garland, L.L.; Nia, E.; Betancourt, R.; Krupinski, E.; Kuo, P.H. 18F-FDG PET/CT can predict development of thyroiditis due to immunotherapy for lung cancer. J. Nucl. Med. Technol., 2018, 46(3), 260-264.
[] [PMID: 29599403]
Goldfarb, L.; Duchemann, B.; Chouahnia, K.; Zelek, L.; Soussan, M. Monitoring anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer with FDG PET: introduction of iPERCIST. EJNMMI Res., 2019, 9(1), 8.
[] [PMID: 30694399]
Pool, M.; Kol, A.; Lub-de Hooge, M.N.; Gerdes, C.A.; de Jong, S.; de Vries, E.G.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A.G. Extracellular domain shedding influences specific tumor uptake and organ distribution of the EGFR PET tracer 89Zr-imgatuzumab. Oncotarget, 2016, 7(42), 68111-68121.
[] [PMID: 27602494]
Ehlerding, E.B.E.C.; England, C.G.; Majewski, R.L.; Valdovinos, H.F.; Jiang, D.; Liu, G.; McNeel, D.G.; Nickles, R.J.; Cai, W. ImmunoPET imaging of CTLA-4 expression in mouse models of non-small cell lung cancer. Mol. Pharm., 2017, 14(5), 1782-1789.
[] [PMID: 28388076]
Cole, E.L.K.J.; Kim, J.; Donnelly, D.J.; Smith, R.A.; Cohen, D.; Lafont, V.; Morin, P.E.; Huang, R.Y.; Chow, P.L.; Hayes, W.; Bonacorsi, S. Jr Radiosynthesis and preclinical PET evaluation of 89Zr-nivolumab (BMS-936558) in healthy non-human primates. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2017, 25(20), 5407-5414.
[] [PMID: 28803798]
England, C.G.J.D.; Jiang, D.; Ehlerding, E.B.; Rekoske, B.T.; Ellison, P.A.; Hernandez, R.; Barnhart, T.E.; McNeel, D.G.; Huang, P.; Cai, W. 89Zr-labeled nivolumab for imaging of T-cell infiltration in a humanized murine model of lung cancer. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2018, 45(1), 110-120.
[] [PMID: 28821924]
Truillet, C.; Oh, H.L.J.; Yeo, S.P.; Lee, C.Y.; Huynh, L.T.; Wei, J.; Parker, M.F.L.; Blakely, C.; Sevillano, N.; Wang, Y.H.; Shen, Y.S.; Olivas, V.; Jami, K.M.; Moroz, A.; Jego, B.; Jaumain, E.; Fong, L.; Craik, C.S.; Chang, A.J.; Bivona, T.G.; Wang, C.I.; Evans, M.J. Imaging PD-L1 expression with ImmunoPET. Bioconjug. Chem., 2018, 29(1), 96-103.
[] [PMID: 29125731]
Sun, H.; England, C.G.; Hernandez, R.; Graves, S.A.; Majewski, R.L.; Kamkaew, A.; Jiang, D.; Barnhart, T.E.; Yang, Y.; Cai, W. ImmunoPET for assessing the differential uptake of a CD146-specific monoclonal antibody in lung cancer. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging, 2016, 43(12), 2169-2179.
[] [PMID: 27342417]
Callahan, M.K.W.J.; Wolchok, J.D. At the bedside: CTLA-4- and PD-1-blocking antibodies in cancer immunotherapy. J. Leukoc. Biol., 2013, 94(1), 41-53.
[] [PMID: 23667165]
Vaz, S.C.C.A.; Oliveira, F.P.; Gil, N.; Barros, C.T.; Perreira, A. Radiopharmacy and molecular imaging of PD-L1 expression in cancer. Clin. Transl. Imaging, 2018, 6, 429-439.
Socinski, M.A., Jr; Jotte, R.M.; Cappuzzo, F.; Orlandi, F.; Stroyakovskiy, D.; Nogami, N.; Rodríguez-Abreu, D.; Moro-Sibilot, D.; Thomas, C.A.; Barlesi, F.; Finley, G.; Kelsch, C.; Lee, A.; Coleman, S.; Deng, Y.; Shen, Y.; Kowanetz, M.; Lopez-Chavez, A.; Sandler, A.; Reck, M. IMpower150 Study Group. Atezolizumab for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Nonsquamous NSCLC. N. Engl. J. Med., 2018, 378(24), 2288-2301.
[] [PMID: 29863955]
Gandhi, L.; Rodríguez-Abreu, D.; Gadgeel, S.; Esteban, E.; Felip, E.; De Angelis, F.; Domine, M.; Clingan, P.; Hochmair, M.J.; Powell, S.F.; Cheng, S.Y.; Bischoff, H.G.; Peled, N.; Grossi, F.; Jennens, R.R.; Reck, M.; Hui, R.; Garon, E.B.; Boyer, M.; Rubio-Viqueira, B.; Novello, S.; Kurata, T.; Gray, J.E.; Vida, J.; Wei, Z.; Yang, J.; Raftopoulos, H.; Pietanza, M.C.; Garassino, M.C. KEYNOTE-189 Investigators Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 2018, 378(22), 2078-2092.
[] [PMID: 29658856]
Govindan, R.; Szczesna, A.; Ahn, M.J.; Schneider, C.P.; Gonzalez Mella, P.F.; Barlesi, F.; Han, B.; Ganea, D.E.; Von Pawel, J.; Vladimirov, V.; Fadeeva, N.; Lee, K.H.; Kurata, T.; Zhang, L.; Tamura, T.; Postmus, P.E.; Jassem, J.; O’Byrne, K.; Kopit, J.; Li, M.; Tschaika, M.; Reck, M. Phase III Trial of Ipilimumab Combined With Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Advanced Squamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. J. Clin. Oncol., 2017, 35(30), 3449-3457.
[] [PMID: 28854067]

© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy