Triggering of Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in NK Cells: Regulation by Cyclosporin A

ISSN: 1875-614X (Online)
ISSN: 1871-5230 (Print)


Volume 15, 3 Issues, 2016


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Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Formerly: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents

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Editor-in-Chief:
Claudiu T. Supuran
Neurofarba Department
University of Florence
Florence
Italy


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Triggering of Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in NK Cells: Regulation by Cyclosporin A



Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 4(2): 115-120.

Author(s): Maria Raffaella Zocchi and Alessandro Poggi.

Affiliation: Laboratory of Immunology, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132-Genoa, Italy.

Abstract

Human natural killer (NK) cells are effectors of innate immunity, capable of killing transformed or virusinfected cells and producing pro-inflammatory cytokines, once activated in a non-HLA-dependent fashion. NK cells express receptors for HLA-I molecules, including CD8, or members of the Inhibitory Receptor Superfamily (IRS), such as the Killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) or C-Lectin type Inhibitory Receptor (CLIR). Soluble molecules of HLA-I (sHLA-I) are significantly increased in the serum of patients affected by auto-immune or infectious diseases. We reported that upon interaction of sHLA-I with either CD8 or IRS activating isoforms (AR), NK cells produced and released FasL which elicited NK cell apoptosis by interacting with Fas at the NK cell surface. CD94/NKG2A or KIR2DL, both inhibiting isoforms of IRS, exerted an inhibitory effect on sHLA-I-mediated apoptosis and secretion of FasL induced via CD8, suggesting that IRS can function as survival receptors. Moreover, large amounts of IFN-γ were detectable in culture supernatant of either CD8+ or AR+ NK cells incubated with the appropriate sHLA-I ligand. In chronic diseases, sHLA could amplify inflammation and, at the same time, eliminate effectors of innate immunity, thus favouring infections. On the other hand, this could represent a mechanism of down-regulation of NK-mediated functions as well, which ultimately contributes to limit self-reaction. Importantly, cyclosporin A (CsA) blocks both AR- or CD8-mediated apoptosis and IFN-γ production, without affecting AR-mediated activation of cytolysis. This would indicate that CsA, although being an immunosuppressive drug, can downregulate inflammation maintaining NK cell-dependent innate immunity, further supporting CsA treatment in autoimmune diseases.

Keywords:

hla-I, kir, clir, irs, nk cells, cyclosporin a.



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Article Details

Volume: 4
Issue Number: 2
First Page: 115
Last Page: 120
Page Count: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1568014053507131
Price: $58
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