Methamphetamine and HIV Infection, Role in Neurocognitive Dysfunction

ISSN: 1875-614X (Online)
ISSN: 1871-5230 (Print)


Volume 15, 3 Issues, 2016


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Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Formerly: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents

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Editor-in-Chief:
Claudiu T. Supuran
Neurofarba Department
University of Florence
Florence
Italy


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Methamphetamine and HIV Infection, Role in Neurocognitive Dysfunction



Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 8(2): 184-191.

Author(s): Katherine Conant, Arun Venkatesan and Avindra Nath.

Affiliation: 509 Pathology Bldg, 600 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Abstract

The use of methamphetamine is steadily increasing worldwide. Its use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and subsequent infection with HIV. Methamphetamine has profound effects on the brain both as an acute intoxicant and following chronic exposure. The combined effects of HIV and methamphetamine appear to result in widespread neuronal and white matter injury. These changes are most prominent in the basal ganglia and frontal lobe, and are not restricted to dopaminergic neurons. Additionally, methamphetamine and HIV proteins disrupt the blood brain barrier, cause glial cell activation and impair the function of neural progenitor cells. Methamphetamine also results in increased HIV replication via activation of chemokine receptors involved in HIV entry. Common pathways in several of these effects seem to involve induction of oxidative stress. Characterization of these subcellular pathways and identification of common targets is essential for development of therapeutic strategies for HIV-infected methamphetamine abusers.

Keywords:

HIV, AIDS, methamphetamine, brain, neuron, dopamine, Tat, gp120.



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Article Details

Volume: 8
Issue Number: 2
First Page: 184
Last Page: 191
Page Count: 8
DOI: 10.2174/187152309789152084
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