Affiliation: Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Via Muroni 23/a, 07100 Sassari, Italy.
Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are an important family of synthetic antimicrobial agents being clinically used over the past thirty years. Currently some FQ are under investigation for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB), defined as resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, and are under investigation as first-line drugs. Their main biological target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the DNA gyrase, a topoisomerase II encoded by gyrA and gyrB that is essential to maintain the DNA supercoil. It has been demonstrated that mutations in short regions of DNA gyrase are associated with quinolone resistance or hypersusceptibility and take place in several MDR clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. In this article we update§ our previous review (Carta et al. Anti-infective agents, 2008, 7, 134-147) about the anti mycobacterial properties, mode of action and structure activity relationship (SAR) studies of the known quinolone derivatives. Furthermore, we update the synthesis and activity of 3,9-disubstituted-6-oxo-6,9-dihydro-3H-[1,2,3]-triazolo[4,5-h,g]quinolonecarboxylic acids and their esters as a new class of potent and selective anti-mycobacterial agents, coupled with absence of cytotoxicity. Furthermore, particularly interesting is their activity against MDR M. tuberculosis.