Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Stomatology, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011, PR China.
Gambogic acid (GA) is a caged xanthone that is derived from Garcinia hanburyi and functions as a strong apoptotic inducer in many types of cancer cells. The distinct effectiveness of GA has led to its characterization as a novel anti-cancer agent. There is an increasing number of research studies focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of GA-induced anti-cancer effects, and several critical signaling pathways have been reported to be influenced by GA treatment. In this review, we summarize the multiple functional effects of GA administration in cancer cells including the induction of apoptosis, the inhibition of proliferation and the prevention of cancer metastasis and tumor angiogenesis.