Affiliation: Consultant in Clinical oncology, Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, 1053 Great Western Road, Glasgow, G12 0YN, United Kingdom.
Treatment of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) after progression on docetaxel chemotherapy is a challenging clinical scenario with limited availability of treatment options. Re-treatment with docetaxel, either as monotherapy or in combination with other cytotoxics or targeted agents has shown durable responses. However, most docetaxel re-treatment studies have been either retrospective or early phase non-randomised studies which have not formally assessed Quality of life or survival gain with re-treatment. Despite limited evidence for efficacy of mitoxantrone in the second-line, it continues to remain widely used, largely due to lack of available suitable alternatives. Cabazitaxel in combination with prednisolone is the only chemotherapy to have shown a significant survival benefit and receive approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for patients with mCRPC previously treated with a docetaxel-based regimen. Abiraterone acetate has recently demonstrated a significant improvement in survival when compared to placebo in patients with docetaxel-treated mCRPC. This review aims to summarize the current evidence and discuss future strategies for treatment of mCRPC patients following failure of docetaxel chemotherapy.