Affiliation: VTT Medical Biotechnology, Itainen Pitkakatu 4C, Turku FIN-20520, Finland.
Reversible protein tyrosine phosphorylation, catalysed by the counter-actors protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), is a fundamentally important regulatory mechanism of proteins in living cells, controlling cell communication, proliferation, differentiation, motility, and molecular trafficking. The activities of PTPs and PTKs are derailed in several diseases such as cancer and type II diabetes, making them attractive drug targets. Developing drugs against PTKs has started a decade earlier than that on PTPs, and at present there are several molecules targeting PTKs on the market. PTPs in turn are of raising interest, with PTP1B on the lead for its effects on type II diabetes and obesity. In the search for modulators of PTP activity, high-throughput methods are important as the initial step to find suitable lead compounds for drug development. Also, high-throughput methods are very useful in elucidating the specific function of different PTPs. In this review, the different high-throughput studies performed to find inhibitors and activators of classical PTPs are discussed.