Affiliation: Department of Biology, Stern College for Women, Yeshiva University, 245 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY USA.
The antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of pomegranate extract (PE), as correlated with its prooxidant activity, were studied. PE exerted greater antiproliferative effects towards cancer, than to normal, cells, isolated from the human oral cavity. In cell-free systems, PE generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in cell culture media and in phosphate buffered saline, with prooxidant activity increasing from acidic to alkaline pH, and oxidized glutathione (GSH) in an alkaline, phosphate buffer. Detection of PE-generated H2O2 was greatly lessened in medium amended with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Using HSC-2 carcinoma cells as the bioindicator, the cytotoxicity of PE was potentiated towards cells pretreated with the GSH depleter, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and attenuated in cells cotreated with the H2O2 scavengers, catalase, pyruvate, and divalent cobalt ion. Intracellular GSH was lessened in cells treated with PE; GSH depletion in PE-treated cells was confirmed visually with the fluorescent dye, Cell TrackerTM Green 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate. These studies demonstrated that the antiproliferative mechanism of PE was, in part, by induction of oxidative stress. The mode of cell death was by apoptosis, as shown by flow cytometry, activation of casapase-3, and cleavage of PARP. Lessening of caspase-3 activation and of PARP cleavage in cells cotreated with PE and either cobalt or pyruvate, respectively, as compared to PE alone, indicated that apoptosis was through the prooxidant nature of PE.