Affiliation: Department of Urology, Central Block, Level E, West Wing, Mail-point 67, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD, United Kingdom.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer amongst men in the USA and the second most common malignant cause of male death worldwide after lung cancer. The life time risk of having microscopic evidence of prostate cancer for a 50 year old man is 42%. Prostate cancer is thus becoming an increasingly significant global health problem in terms of mortality, morbidity, as well as economically. This review, discusses current medical therapeutic options for prostate cancer including traditional treatments using luteinising hormone releasing analogues (LHRH), anti-androgens and estrogen treatments, and the use of novel drugs directed against molecular targets considered important in oncogenesis and metastasis. Prostate cancer chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors and the role of gene therapy are also considered.