<i>In Vivo</i> Anti-Tumor Effects of Flavokawain A in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cell-Challenged Mice

ISSN: 1875-5992 (Online)
ISSN: 1871-5206 (Print)


Volume 16, 12 Issues, 2016


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Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Formerly: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents

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Editor-in-Chief:
Michelle Prudhomme
Universite Blaise Pascal - C.N.R.S
Aubiere Cedex
France


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In Vivo Anti-Tumor Effects of Flavokawain A in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cell-Challenged Mice



Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 15(7): 905-915.

Author(s): Nadiah Abu, Nurul Elyani Mohamed, Swee Keong Yeap, Kian Lam Lim, M Nadeem Akhtar, Aimi Jamil Zulfadli, Beh Boon Kee, Mohd Puad Abdullah, Abdul Rahman Omar and Noorjahan Banu Alitheen.

Affiliation: Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, 43400, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Abstract

Flavokawain A is a chalcone that can be found in the kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) extract. The kava-kava plant has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The state of the immune system, and the inflammatory process play vital roles in the progression of cancer. The immunomodulatary effects and the anti-inflammatory effects of flavokawain A in a breast cancer murine model have not been studied yet. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the basic mechanism as to how flavokawain A regulates and enhance the immune system as well as impeding the inflammatory process in breast cancer-challenged mice. Based on our study, it is interesting to note that flavokawain A increased the T cell population; both Th1 cells and CTLs, aside from the natural killer cells. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 were also elevated in the serum of flavokawain A-treated mice. Apart from that, flavokawain A also decreased the weight and volume of the tumor, and managed to induce apoptosis in them. In terms of inflammation, flavokawain A-treated mice had reduced level of major pro-inflammatory mediators; NO, iNOS, NF-KB, ICAM and COX-2. Overall, flavokawain A has the potential to not only enhance antitumor immunity, but also prevents the inflammatory process in a cancer-prone microenvironment.




Keywords:

Anti-cancer, chalcone, flavokawain A, immunomodulation.



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Article Details

Volume: 15
Issue Number: 7
First Page: 905
Last Page: 915
Page Count: 11
DOI: 10.2174/187152061507150713111557
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