Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Immunology, Saint James School of Medicine, A-I-2640 Albert Lake Drive, The Quarter, P.O. Box 318, Anguilla BWI, Anguilla.
Onset of tumors in breast cancer is a multi-factorial event at different ages and ethnic populations. The conventional treatment strategy suggests use of anti-estrogen drugs and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Although, this strategy has achieved significant success to prevent tumor growth and metastasis and is still developing under an active field of research, the emergence of immunotherapy is a potential modern approach for breast cancer. In addition to SERMs, the screening of selective agonists for toll-like receptor (TLR) signals confers a new area of breast cancer therapy. Recent investigations also indicate significance of TLR signals in the regulation of tumor suppressor p53 gene expression. The TLR agonists have an ability to facilitate activation of natural killer cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, and alpha and beta interferons and induce cellular cytotoxicity. The ongoing developments in cancer research also suggested an approach for intra-tumoral generation of cellular cytotoxicity to induce apoptosis. Both of these events promote destruction of tumor cells in a localized manner and thus, having impact on immunotherapy. Keeping a cautious eye on the context, we propose the prospect of TLR signals in the development of therapy for breast cancer.