Affiliation: University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, 1601 Parkview Avenue, Rockford, IL, 61107, USA.
Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are the traditional options to control tumor progression. However, these strategies are fraught with harmful side effects and are ineffective in metastatic and advanced cancers. Biomarkers that are overexpressed in cancers and are involved in cell growth, proliferation, migration, and survival have recently become the focus of new molecular targeting therapies. Novel therapies targeting biomarkers have roles in tumorigenesis that are overexpressed in cancers may be more efficacious and less toxic in comparison to traditional therapies. These therapies include the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of cancer. However, the efficacy of these therapies is limited due to the development of drug resistance after prolonged treatment. Current research is focused on understanding mechanisms of resistance to overcome the barriers limiting the use of these targeting therapies in the treatment of cancer. In this review, we will discuss the clinical status of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies against several prevalent biomarkers that are candidates for therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma.