Affiliation: Department of Gastroenterology, The 309th Hospital of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, A17 Heishanhu Rd., Beijing 100091, China.
Cancer cells create a microenvironment that prevents tumor rejection by the host’s immune system. The activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) can elicit an innate immune response and guide the adaptive immune response to overcome this. dsRNA analogs can trigger TLR3, RIG-I, MDA5, NLRP3 and several other PRRs to induce not only robust immune response against cancer but also programmed cell death. This review focuses on the signal pathways activated by dsRNA and examines examples of their clinical application in cancer treatment.