Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766.
Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Chemoprevention using phytoestrogens (PEs) for breast cancer may be a valid strategy. PEs are phytochemicals with estrogen-like structures and can be classified into four types: isoflavones, lignans, stilbenes and coumestans. They are widely distributed in diet and herbs and have shown anti-cancer activity via mechanisms including estrogen receptor modulation, aromatase inhibition, and anti-angiogenesis. Genistein, daidzein and resveratrol are some of the most studied PE examples. Quality control in product manufacturing and clinical study design is a critical issue in developing them as clinically effective chemopreventive agents for breast cancer.