Regulation of miRNA Processing and miRNA Mediated Gene Repression in Cancer

ISSN: 2211-5374 (Online)
ISSN: 2211-5366 (Print)


Volume 3, 3 Issues, 2014


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MicroRNA

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Editor-in-Chief:
Pan-Chyr Yang
Department of Internal Medicine
College of Medicine
National Taiwan University
1, Sec 1, Ren-Ai Road
Taipei, 10051
Taiwan, ROC


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Regulation of miRNA Processing and miRNA Mediated Gene Repression in Cancer

Author(s): Sarah Bajan and Gyorgy Hutvagner

Affiliation: Correspondence: Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, Centre of Health Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Abstract

The majority of human protein-coding genes are predicted to be targets of miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation. The widespread influence of miRNAs is illustrated by their essential roles in all biological processes. Regulated miRNA expression is essential for maintaining cellular differentiation; therefore alterations in miRNA expression patterns are associated with several diseases, including various cancers. High-throughput sequencing technologies revealed low level expressing miRNA isoforms, termed isomiRs. IsomiRs may differ in sequence, length, target preference and expression patterns from their parental miRNA and can arise from differences in miRNA biosynthesis, RNA editing, or SNPs inherent to the miRNA gene. The association between isomiR expression and disease progression is largely unknown. Misregulated miRNA expression is thought to contribute to the formation and/or progression of cancer. However, due to the diversity of targeted transcripts, miRNAs can function as both tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes as defined by cellular context. Despite this, miRNA profiling studies concluded that the differential expression of particular miRNAs in diseased tissue could aid the diagnosis and treatment of some cancers.

Keywords: Cancer, gene regulation, isomiR, miRNA, miRNA editing, SNP.

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Article Details

Volume: 3
Issue Number: 1
First Page: 10
Last Page: 17
Page Count: 8
DOI: 10.2174/2211536602666140110234046
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