ISSN: 1875-6212 (Online)
ISSN: 1570-1611 (Print)


Volume 12, 6 Issues, 2014


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Current Vascular Pharmacology

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  • 24th of 68 in Peripheral Vascular Disease
  • 87th of 261 in Pharmacology & Pharmacy

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Editor-in-Chief:
Dimitri P. Mikhailidis
Academic Head, Deptartment of Clinical Biochemistry
Royal Free Hospital Campus
University College London Medical School
University College London (UCL)
Pond Street
London, NW3 2QG
UK


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Current: 2.821
5 - Year: 2.889

Insulin Resistance in Brain and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

Author(s): Sevki Cetinkalp, Ilgin Yildirim Simsir and Sibel Ertek

Affiliation: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ege University Medical School, 35100 Bornova- IZMIR- TURKEY

Abstract

Although the brain has long been considered an insulin-independent organ, recent research has shown that insulin has significant effects on the brain, where it plays a role in maintaining glucose and energy homeostasis. To avoid peripheral insulin resistance, the brain may act via hypoinsulinemic responses, maintaining glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity within its own confines; however, brain insulin resistance may develop due to environmental factors. Insulin has two important functions in the brain: controlling food intake and regulating cognitive functions, particularly memory. Notably, defects in insulin signaling in the brain may contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. Insulin resistance may damage the cognitive system and lead to dementia states. Furthermore, inflammatory processes in the hypothalamus, where insulin receptors are expressed at high density, impair local signaling systems and cause glucose and energy metabolism disorders. Excessive caloric intake and high-fat diets initiate insulin and leptin resistance by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the hypothalamus. This may lead to obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM). Exercise can enhance brain and hypothalamic insulin sensitivity, but it is the option least preferred and/or continuously practiced by the general population. Pharmacological treatments that increase brain and hypothalamic insulin sensitivity may provide new insights into the prevention of dementia disorders, obesity, and type 2 DM in the future.

Keywords: Brain, hypothalamus, insulin resistance, leptin

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Article Details

Volume: 12
First Page: 1
Last Page: 12
Page Count: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1570161112999140206130426
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