Affiliation: Bashkortostan State Medical University, Pediatrics Department, 3 Lenina St., Ufa, Russia, 450008.
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, microaerophilic spiral bacillus that is associated with life-threatening diseases such as gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, and peptic ulcer disease. The definition of an effective therapy is one that achieves at least a 90% eradication rate on a per-protocol basis with the first attempt. Eradication rates of H. pylori have declined to unacceptable levels worldwide, mostly due to antibiotic resistance and standard triple therapy gradually has lost its efficacy in most counties. However, bismuth quadruple therapy, when prescribed properly, has maintained its effectiveness. Alternative first-line regimens such as sequential and concomitant therapy were developed to substitute for standard triple therapy and were highly effective in the countries where they were developed, but proved susceptible to failure in regions with high rates of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance rates in Russia are high, however there is lack of data regarding comparative efficacy of first-line eradication options. The authors of this review extrapolate the knowledge of H. pylori first-line eradication options in Russia based on data from other countries, as well as from domestic studies. The available data support use of 14-day regimens with concomitant therapy, bismuth quadruple therapy, or furazolidone quadruple therapy for empiric use in adults. In addition, 14-day levofloxacin-containing therapies could be used if resistance is relatively low or lacking as triple therapy or possibly as a 5-day concomitant levofloxacin therapy.