Development and Characterization of a Gel Formulation Integrating Microencapsulated Nitrofurazone
Victor M. Balcao, Milca G. Santos, Paloma R. Martins, Marco V. Chaud, Jose M. de Oliveira Junior, Matthieu Tubino and Marta M.D.C. VilaAffiliation:
Laboratory for the Development and Evaluation of Bioactive Substances, University of Sorocaba, Cidade Universitária, Rod. Raposo Tavares km 92.5, CEP 18023-000 Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
AbstractNitrofurazone (NTZ) is usually employed in the topical treatment of infected wounds and lesions of both skin and mucosa. Microencapsulation is a process utilized in the incorporation of active ingredients within polymers aiming at, among other objectives, the prolonged release of pharmaceutical compounds and protection from atmospheric agents (viz. moisture, light, heat and/or oxidation). With the goal of utilizing the microparticles containing encapsulated NTZ in pharmaceutical formulations, one prepared microparticles containing NTZ via ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate. The microparticles were characterized via scanning electron microscopy analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses, via determination of encapsulation efficiency, and via thermal analyses (both TGA and DSC). The final gel formulation was also characterized rheologically. The extrusion/solidification technique employed to obtain the calcium alginate microparticles with encapsulated NTZ was found to be adequate, and produced an NTZ encapsulation efficiency of ca. 97.8% ± 1.1%. The calcium alginate microparticles thus obtained, with encapsulated NTZ, exhibited an oval shape and hydrodynamic diameters between 500 μm and 800 μm. From the thermal analyses performed, together with information from the infrared spectra, one may conclude that NTZ did not strongly bind to the polymer, which may be favorable for the release of the active ingredient. From the results obtained in the present research effort, one may conclude that the microparticles produced possess the potential to be utilized as carriers for NTZ in pharmaceutical formulations such as gels, ointments, and solutions.
Antimicrobial topical applications, calcium alginate, ionotropic gelation, microencapsulation, microparticles, nitrofurazone.
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