Cell Immunity in Inflammatory Vasculitis

ISSN: 1875-631X (Online)
ISSN: 1573-3955 (Print)


Volume 11, 2 Issues, 2015


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Current Immunology Reviews

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Editor-in-Chief:
Cecil Czerkinsky
Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire
UMR 7275 CNRS-INSERM-UNISA
660 Route des Lucioles
Valbonne, 06560
France


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Cell Immunity in Inflammatory Vasculitis

Author(s): Angelo Ferrante, Francesco Ciccia, Giuliana Guggino, Anna Rita Giardina and Giovanni Triolo

Affiliation: Sezione di Reumatologia, Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche 2, 90127, Palermo, Italy.

Abstract

The vasculitides are a highly heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the presence of inflammatory leukocytes in the vessel walls and reactive inflammation. Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu’s arteritis (TA) are the two primary large-vessel vasculitides. Two distinct cellular pathways have been identified in GCA: Th17 polarization and IL-17 secretion and generation of Th1 cells which secrete IFN-γ. These two pathways may play different roles in the pathogenesis of vasculitides. The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAVs) are small vessel vasculitis associated with antibodies directly to myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) such as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) or with antibodies directly to proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Both in vitro and in vivo experimental data have shown that MPO-ANCA can induce necrotizing smallvessel vasculitis; however the presence of granulomatous lesions suggests the involvement of cell-mediated immune responses. Behçet syndrome (BS) is a chronic relapsing vasculitis of arteries and veins with unclear etiology. Exogenous and endogenous antigens, innate immune cells such as dendritic, NK, neutrophils and adaptive-immune cells are involved.

Keywords: Vasculitis, vasculitides, giant cell vasculitis, ANCA, Takayasu, Horton, Behçet syndrome.

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Article Details

Volume: 11
Issue Number: 1
First Page: 3
Last Page: 11
Page Count: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1573395510666140626210842
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