Affiliation: Laboratory of Cell Therapy, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Provinciale 142 - 10060 Candiolo, Torino Italy.
Genetic engineering of T lymphocytes to confer new antitumor specificities is a fascinating approach that may help the successful clinical translation of adoptive immunotherapy strategies. The recognition of tumor-specific antigens may be obtained inducing the membrane expression of transgene encoded antitumor T cell receptors (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). Few but very informative clinical trials with TCR or CAR redirected T lymphocytes have been attempted in the last years, reporting important clinical results along with disappointing failures and important warnings. In this work, we will focus on TCR and CAR redirected T lymphocytes as adoptive immunotherapy for solid tumors. We will review the main topics of these strategies from the angle of clinical applications, discussing the main issues that emerged from early clinical trials and their impact on next study designs.