Affiliation: Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1521 Budapest, Hungary.
One criterion of green chemistry is efficiency that may be fulfilled by selecting atomic efficient reactions, and among others, utilizing the microwave (MW) or the phase transfer catalytic techniques, rationalizing the use of solvents and optimizing the syntheses. The use of green chemical tools is exemplified via a wide range of organophosphorus reactions including additions/cycloadditions (Michael additions, carbonyl additions and Diels-Alder cycloadditions), substitutions/ couplings (acylations, alkylations, the Arbuzov reaction) and 3-component condensations (the Kabachnik–Fields reaction). An efficient optimization is shown via the synthesis of dronic acids or their sodium salt (dronates) from substituted acetic acid derivatives and tervalent P-reactants (PCl3 and P(OH)3). The optimum conditions were explored on a rational basis.