Affiliation: Center for Heart & Vascular Care, University of North Carolina, 160 Dental Circle, CB 7075, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7075, USA.
Although patients with American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Stage B heart failure, or asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (ALVD) are at high risk for developing symptomatic heart failure, few management strategies have been shown to slow disease state progression or improve long-term morbidity and mortality. Of the pharmacologic therapies utilized in patients with symptomatic disease, only angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (and to a lesser extent, angiotensin receptor blockers, or ARBs) have been shown to improve clinical outcomes among patients with ALVD. Although evidence to support the use of beta blockers in this setting has been primarily derived from retrospective studies or subgroup analyses, they are generally recommended in most patients with ALVD, especially those with ischemic etiology. Statins are associated with improvements in both major adverse cardiovascular events and heart failure events among patients with a history of acute myocardial infarction. Finally, in eligible patients, placement of an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has been associated with reduced mortality rates among those with ALVD due to ischemic cardiomyopathy, and some subgroups may derive benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy or biventricular pacing.