Multifaceted Approach to Circadian Rhythm: Redox, Oxidative Stress, Melatonin, Antioxidants, Nitric Oxide, Hypoxia, Anesthetics, Cortisol and Cocaine

ISSN: 1872-3136 (Online)
ISSN: 2212-7968 (Print)


Volume 8, 3 Issues, 2014


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Multifaceted Approach to Circadian Rhythm: Redox, Oxidative Stress, Melatonin, Antioxidants, Nitric Oxide, Hypoxia, Anesthetics, Cortisol and Cocaine

Author(s): Peter Kovacic and Ratnasamy Somanathan

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1030 USA.

Abstract

There is a vast literature dealing with various aspects of the circadian clock. This review provides examples of the multifaceted nature, of namely redox, oxidative stress, melatonin, antioxidants, nitric oxide, hypoxia, anesthetics, cortisol and cocaine. The redox and oxidative stress features reflect the involvement of electron transfer and radical species, which can exert either beneficial or deleterious effects. The harmful aspects can be countered by antioxidants. Melatonin is a brain hormone that is known to play a widespread role in the biochemistry of the circadian clock. Nitric oxide is widespread in the human body and plays a variety of roles. Hypoxia has been broadly discussed in relation to circadian rhythm, e.g., in high altitude flight. The anesthetic topic completes the list.

Keywords: Antioxidants, circadian rhythms, cortisol, cocaine, hypoxia, melatonin, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, redox states.

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Article Details

Volume: 7
Issue Number: 3
First Page: 271
Last Page: 281
Page Count: 11
DOI: 10.2174/22127968113079990002
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