Human Evolution, Life History Theory, and the End of Biological Reproduction

ISSN: 1874-6128 (Online)
ISSN: 1874-6098 (Print)


Volume 7, 3 Issues, 2014


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Editor-in-Chief:
Prof. Debomoy K. Lahiri
Department of Psychiatry Indiana University School of Medicine
Indianapolis, IN
USA


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Human Evolution, Life History Theory, and the End of Biological Reproduction

Author(s): Cadell Last

Affiliation: Global Brain Institute (GBI), Brussels, Belgium.

Abstract

Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

Keywords: Aging, biology, culture, evolution, future, human evolution, life history theory, primates.

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Article Details

Volume: 7
Issue Number: 1
First Page: 17
Last Page: 24
Page Count: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1874609807666140521101610
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