Membrane technology is receiving more and more opportunities to become a true implemented technology in many industrial applications. It is perfectly suited to answer some of the demands that are put forward in the new trends towards sustainable production and process intensification. Since many of these applications are in solvent environments, suitable membranes need new requirements including solvent compatibility and nanoporosity. In this chapter, a general overview is given on the progress that is made in the development of nanoporous, solvent-stable membranes. Emphasis is put on the synthesis of these membranes as well as on there stability. Both polymeric and ceramic membranes are described. However, this chapter is mainly focused on ceramic membranes and more specific hybrid organic-inorganic membranes made by post-synthesis modification or in situ methods. Synthesis methods such as organosilane and phosphonic acid grafting as well as a more recently developed method are discussed. The general aspects, advantages and drawbacks of each method are discussed in detail.
Mixed-Matrix Membranes (MMM) could provide a near term solution to the permeability/selectivity trade-off with polymeric gas separation membranes and bridge the gap with inorganic membranes. While zeolite and carbon additives have shown promise, the corresponding mixed-matrix membranes are limited by low loadings and interfacial defects such that the true potential of MMMs has not been realized. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF), on the other hand, provide exceptionally high surface areas and organic linkers that could enhance selective gas transport and improve polymer/particle interactions. In this review, recent theoretical and experimental results for MOF-based mixed-matrix membranes will be described.