Liver cancer, cirrhosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are observed predominately in men. Being male or female is believed to be an important human variable that affects health and liver disease throughout the life span. However, few works have been published on the biological mechanisms underlying gender specific differences in liver disease. Several mechanisms underlying sex-associated differences of progression of liver disease are demonstrated in this e-book based on biological factors as estrogen and hepatic iron stores. Readers will gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of these sex-associated differences in liver disease and on how to design healthcare for liver disease more effectively for individuals belonging to both genders. The e-book should be a useful reference on gender specific medicine for counselors and clinicians as well as for patients with chronic liver disease.