There is considerable interest in reliable and affordable sensor and detection systems. Recent concerns about environmental exposure to both biological and chemical agents have been critical to the development of new sensor and detector technologies. New materials are being developed to meet the challenges ahead. Smart nanomaterials appear to be a key solution to these challenges. This e-book summarizes current progress in sensor applications of smart nanomaterials. It should be a useful resource for materials scientists and readers interested in nanotechnology for biosensors.