A relatively new type of spectrometer based on the Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) concept recently joined the list of successfully flown satellite instruments. SHS is related to the Michelson interferometer and thus the Fourier Transform spectrometer, but it has no moving parts and it measures the interferogram in the spatial domain rather than the time domain. SHS instruments have been built for the far and near ultraviolet, the visible, near and thermal infrared. This article reviews a recent patent that is covering an approach to assemble an SHS interferometer using compression forces and precision spacers which allows a robust and economical design, self-aligned assembly, and the option to replace optical components relatively easily. As an example, we show a thermal infrared SHS interferometer that was designed using this approach.
Instruments designed to test for signs of life on Mars must have operational simplicity and efficiency. One example is the Life Marker Chip being developed to fly on the forthcoming European Space Agency ExoMars mission. Target organic compounds include both polar and non polar molecules and, prior to our patented discovery, no solvent had been tested which effectively extracted both types of molecule in a fashion which was compatible with antibodybased detectors. We have compared the extraction efficiency of water-based solvents alongside conventional organic solvents to determine their suitability for extracting organic mixtures on space missions. Using a range of hydrocarbon standards and a Mars regolith simulant (JSC Mars-1) we have concluded that a water-methanol mix with 1.5 to 2.5 g/L of polysorbate 80 represents the most suitable solvent with extraction efficiencies that can achieve up to approximately 30% of that using conventional organic solvents (assuming 100% efficiency with 93:7 (vol:vol) dichloromethane:methanol mixtures). The surfactant solution will also provide solutions to terrestrial problems, one of which is explored in the patented work.
The article describes a direct link between large-scale exploration of the Space and required further development of space cargo vehicles. It demonstrates that the creation of a new generation of reusable universal Earth - Space – Earth transportation system of large carrying capacity is urgently called for to effectively solve a large number of existing and perspective space objectives of the 21st century. LLC Marengo has developed and proposes for immediate implementation the project of such a system.
The Photo II instrument is an optical sensor which flew on board the Foton-M2 and Foton-M3 missions of the European Space Agency. The experiment aimed at testing the resistance of several C. reinhardtii algal strains to the space environment by measuring in real time their photosynthetic performance. We present the architectural structure of the Photo II device, describe the concept and importance of the biological experiment and discuss the main issues regarding the performance of this sensor in Space. This patent review highlights the Space to Earth technological transfer as a series of Photo II based devices that have been designed and developed as biosensors for applications on Earth. Two examples of technology transfer of the space sensor are discussed: SensDNA for the analysis of labeled DNA, RNA, oligonucleotides and proteins, and OPTICBIOMulticell, a biosensor platform for environmental monitoring. Several patents on the subject that appeared in recent years are discussed.
This article is intended to review methods of producing foamed materials in space. Patents and papers will be reviewed which discuss various approaches to producing foamed materials on the ground and in space as well as other microgravity processing techniques. The physics of foam formation will be briefly discussed as well as foam structure. Different methods of foam formation primarily with metals and in particular with aluminum will be discussed. Finally, two patents for producing foamed materials in space developed by the author will be discussed in detail.
The expressions for the error probability, the average number of possible repetitions, and the average consumption of energy for the coded communication system with information feedback are obtained. A simple effective method of the threshold control in the feedback channel receiver is suggested when the Gaussian noise is present in the system. This method makes possible to avoid the useless consumption of energy in the coded system when the signal to noise ratio on the feedback channel is small and to improve the efficiency in other cases. A new technical patented scheme of a processing algorithm is described.
Interference-fit fasteners are commonly used in aircraft structures and the quality of their installation is critical to the service life of the structures. Conventional installation methods of driving fasteners usually use pneumatic or hydraulic tooling as a driving force, which can cause significant installation damage when a large driving force is required. This paper presents numerical simulation and experimental approaches for investigating the process of driving interference-fit fasteners with a stress wave installation method. The performance and advantages of the stress wave installation method are explored using the finite element method. In particular, the loading characteristics and driving process of the new method are investigated and compared with conventional installation methods. The results indicate that the stress wave method can effectively drive fasteners with higher interference values and cause much less damage than conventional installation methods. Fatigue testing for fasteners installed by both conventional methods and the stress wave method is carried out to verify the results from numerical simulation. The stress wave driving method can also increase the fatigue strength of the joint. This patent review highlights the developments of stress wave installation methods and their numerical simulation algorithms as well as fatigue testing approaches.
The process of water vapor condensation in a rocket engine exhaust in the upper atmosphere is considered. Effects of a heating of condensed particles by the latent heat of condensation, radiating heating and energy losses due to radiation are taken into account. The formed condensate is not in heat equilibrium with gaseous combustion products, and a dominating process responsible for energy losses of condensate is their thermal radiation. By solving the equations of heat and mass balance of the condensed particles, dependences of changes of temperature and size of particles upon time are obtained. During a condensation process, the thickness of condensed layer on the surface of particles can reach more than 70 A.
Commercial organization proposes affordable space transportation off planet by using existing space shuttle hardware in new ways by using innovation to create more volume and by existing paid for space launch hardware from cancelled aerospace programs such as the Space Shuttle, the External Tank and Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) designs already tested to change the space payload density and use in new combinations for a commercial heavy launch vehicle for the accelerated movement of mankind off this planet. The varied payload density created and lower cost launching of mass and volume from Earth stimulates 20 or more new industries in orbit around Earth and later around other celestial bodies. Increased affordable transportation accelerates the movement of mankind off the planet brings closer the day we have a guaranteed survival of our species. Six on more extinction events have occurred on Earth to date and prior to our evolution to mankinds current development. Our species would not have survived any of the previous extinction events.
Sun synchronous orbits are widely and most successfully employed for Earth observation, as the lighting conditions during each passage of a satellite over a given area are constant in time. Orbital plane precession is caused by the Earth oblateness, but only some specific values of semi-major axis and inclination allow having an orbital plane precession synchronous to the apparent motion of the Sun. The main purpose of this article is to prove the existence of a brand new category of Sun synchronous orbits, achievable by combining the Earth oblateness effect with the solar radiation pressure. Up to now, solar sailing has been successfully employed to modify the spacecraft attitude, as proved by the numerous related patents. In the present paper, given the orbital inclination, the small thrust produced by the solar sail allows raising the typical semi-major axis for Sun-synchronicity, thus increasing the number of available Sun- Synchronous orbits. This paper also provides a detailed dissertation about the attitude control strategy required to achieve Sun-synchronicity with Cosmos 1-like solar sails.