The work discusses in a critical and evaluative fashion, notions of self-assembled and driven-constructed structures such as layers, solid and semi-solid thin films, nanostructures (wires, etc.) and nanoparticles. The goal of the technology is for application to medicine, flexible materials for sensor or engineering (microelectronics, optics, etc.) use and a range of patent-specific applications. The discussed platform-technology represents a starting point material that can be modified for a range of applications. This gives the new product a particular edge over current products. The components of the structure may be assembled piece-by-piece or layer-by-layer and this provides an element of flexibility (smartness) within the design. This strategy may build on to a more generalized form of chemical modification of polymer and monomer thin films or layers to suit the purpose. The reason for such modifications may relate to particular complexation and composite forming capability, such as crystal inclusion in polymer films or the physical, mechanical and chemical protection offered by encapsulation as pertinent to the delivery of drugs in consistent form. With recent advancements, the technologies discussed provide a great potential for far-reaching scientific applications in research and manufacturing.
Ozonation of vegetable oils and fatty acids is a convenient oxidation process that has been used to prepare various value-added intermediates and products for industrial applications. Unlike other oxidation routes, ozone is produced on-site eliminating issues related to transportation and storage of the oxidation agent. Furthermore, any residual ozone quickly decomposes back to oxygen such that no special work-up procedures are needed to remove waste byproducts from the reaction mixture. The general process is initiated with the attack of ozone on the double bonds and the formation of ozonide intermediates. Various methods are then described in the patent literature where these intermediates are decomposed and reacted via different routes to produce carboxylic acids and esters, polyols, aldehydes, biodiesel and biofuel additives, as well as methods to stabilize and use these intermediates as disinfectants and other pharmaceutical agents. Although this oxidation process has been known for many years, a renewed interest is apparent from the increase in the number of patents in recent years.
The review is devoted to the patents literature development in the field of biosensors during the last 20 years. Aspects related on the polymeric gels used into sensor devices, as well as some general characteristics to the analyte biosensor based on polymeric gels, they are presented. The scientific publications in connection with the presented data are cited. It is also underlined that the entire area of chemical biosensors is much too larger than the electrochemical sensors discussed here. Optical, thermal, and surface acoustic wave sensors, for example, are all exciting research areas that complete the field of electrochemical sensors.
Bioactive ceramic/glass (BCG) and its derivations have received extensive investigations and clinical applications in hard tissue substitution and regeneration. This review presents the patents on the state of art of the preparation of BCG and its application in tissue engineering and drug delivery. Most of the important patents and journal reports in last 10 years are covered in this paper. The discussions are concentrated on the preparation of various BCG materials with different architectures and functions. Special attention is paid to the recent developments in BCG cement, BCG coating, mesoporous BCG, nanoscale composite of BCG and biodegradable polymers, stimuli responsive BCG hydrogel, and homogeneously mineralized self-assembled peptide-amphiphile (PA) nanofiber-hydroxyapatite composite. Among others, development of highly ordered mesoporous BCG is highlighted as a breakthrough in the history of BCG due to its great potential in controlled delivery system for bioactive molecules in bone tissue regeneration. The nanocomposite of BCG and polymer is also considered as one of promising biomaterials due to its capability for using as the biomedical devices in load bearing bone tissue fixation and substitution. The valuable future investigations on BCG are also speculated in this review.
Corrosion usually takes place and degrades material surfaces based on environmental chemistry. There are several popular ways of decreasing corrosion rates to improve the lifetime of materials and devices. The application of nanotechnology in the corrosion protection of metals has recently gained momentum. As recently determined, some methods may incorporate nanostructured materials processing approaches. These include surface treatment methods, nanocomposite thin film coatings, top layer coatings and thermal barrier coatings. A polymer nano-coating can effectively combine the benefits of organic polymers, such as elasticity and water resistance, to that of advanced inorganic materials, such as hardness and permeability. Environmental impact can also be improved by utilizing nanostructure particulates in coatings and eliminating the requirement of toxic solvents. Nano-coatings have also proven to be effective alternative to chromate treatment of metallic substrate, which is hazardous due to the presence of toxic hexavalent chromium. This article provides a clear picture of patents on the technologies currently available with a special emphasis on nanocoatings and reports some of the preliminary investigations on the corrosion-resistance performance of nanocoatings and their applications.
First, this article briefly describes our recent efforts on fabrication of organic field-effect transistors. We then describe our researches on wet-processable electronic materials such as colloidal dispersion of SrTiO3 nanoparticles and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene /poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) colloidal dispersion, which are potentially available to organic field-effect transistors as high-dielectric-constant insulators and source-drain/gate electrodes, respectively. In this article we also briefly review recent patents on organic electronic devices, contributed by other research groups.