In this paper, the issue of Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing system exploiting Giant Magneto Resistive sensors is presented for inspection of Printed Circuit Board. We propose a wide view of the state-of-the-art into this interdisciplinary research field, following the chronological path of the major results achieved in recent years. Once the relevant background is depicted, some important patents concerning eddy current probe and, in general, integrated software/hardware Giant Magneto Resistive-based systems are introduced, with particular reference to some patents about crack detection in conducting materials. The advantages of the proposed models and some possible improvements are discussed. Then a final look to the possible developments is given.
In this article, recent patents on bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators and filters are reviewed. This technology is suggested as a viable alternative to conventional surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology since it offers better performance. As regards resonators, in this review article recent patents on the design and fabrication of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBARs) and Solidly Mounted Resonators (SMRs) are presented. The reviewed patents on BAW filters are divided into two categories. In the first one, patents which deal with electrically-connected resonator filters are presented, whereas in the second one, acoustically-coupled resonator filters are addressed. Finally, current and future developments of this technology are given.
Ultra wideband (UWB) is a modulation technique that uses communication signals with a bandwidth in the order of hundreds of megahertz or even various gigahertz. It is a very promising communications technology under active research, development, regulation, and standardization efforts, with applications in computer and communications, consumer, radar, automotive, and cable. UWB presents many design challenges, and requires innovative designs for lowcost high-performance transmitters and receivers. In this article, we discuss selected patents on communications system techniques for UWB.
Using wireless technology for remote patient monitoring has already taken place in hospitals around the world to support diagnostic and therapeutic functions. Although, a large number of wireless medical systems have been reported in the literature, they have been designed for specific applications that cover limited number of sensors and patients. Future wireless medical monitoring systems should be used in a wireless body area network (WBAN) scheme in order to operate in a larger area in hospital environments. They should be able to incorporate with other wireless systems such as Bluetooth, WiFi and short-range wireless sensor systems such as ZigBee. Installing an interference free wireless medical network for monitoring physiological parameters in a medical center may be quite challenging since there are a number of other wireless systems or equipments (e.g. Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, Microwave oven) operating already for different purposes. Thus it is very crucial to design an interference free wireless system for a WBAN in medical applications. In addition to unlicensed ISM bands, there are medical bands such as MICS (Medical Implant Communication Service) and WMTS (Wireless Medical Telemetry Service) that are specifically regulated for medical monitoring by communication commissions around the world. The recent short-range low data rate ultra-wideband (UWB) technology is another attractive technology that started to appear for body area network applications due to its low transmitter power. Low power operation is essential for sensor nodes in a wireless body area network application as it determines the life time and the size of the device. It is therefore desirable to use a wireless standard (or a wireless chip) that will provide low power consumption and has a minimum transmitted power that still meets the required range of the body area networks. Recent developments have focused on the designs of individual wireless sensor electronics that can be used as an implantable and wearable node to detect signals such as EEG, ECG, pulse rate and temperature. This work will review the recent advances and relevant patents in wireless body area network applications. Issues related to hardware implementations, software and wireless protocol designs for a complete wireless body area network application have been addressed.
This article focuses on multi-antenna systems for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communications. Conceptual antenna arrangements and specific designs are reviewed according to the aimed applications. Some specific parameters to characterize antennas for MIMO-UWB applications are discussed. The perspectives in sense of future developments of UWB multi-antennas and their functionalities are also suggested. In this article patent based information on multiple antenna for UWB communication is also discussed.
This article presents a review of a kind of evolutionary algorithms belonging to lamarckian learning group. It begins with providing background of evolutionary algorithms. Explanation on generic tabu search is given together with reviews of its variation. The reviews cover reactive tabu search (RTS), parallel tabu search (PTS), probabilistic tabu search (PrTS), hybrid tabu search (HTS) and adaptive tabu search (ATS). Finally, the article presents a meta-heuristic approach referred to as the management agent (MA) for search. With the MA, search performance can be improved dramatically as being confirmed by our results of surface optimization problems. In this article the most important patents are also discussed.
High efficiency of solar energy conversion is not possible without proper design of solar cells. Along with conventional structures based on crystalline silicon or wide band gap A3B5materials there are proposed solar cells of various architecture (for example, tandem solar cells) and solar cells fabricated using novel technologies. The paper presents the following types of high-effective solar cells: i) solar cells fabricated on high oxygen concentration single crystal silicon substrates grown by CZ-method with thin film silicon active layer for enhanced photoelectron conversion formed by ion implantation with optical coatings for advantageous coupling of solar radiation into thin film solar cell devices via the use of rare-earth metal oxide (REOx), rare-earth metal oxynitride (REOxNy) and rare-earth metal oxyphosphide (REOxPy) glasses and or crystalline material; ii) single p-n-junction solar cells including an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the p-n-junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction tandem solar cell through only a single p-n junction are expected to achieve 30%power efficiency. Furthermore, the paper discusses necessary fundamentals of solar device functionality and describes important physical features of casings used in device design. Recent patents information on solar energy conversion is also discussed in this article.
In this paper, a new technique is proposed for multiplication of two sampled analog signals and the result is in digital form. The analog signals which are to be multiplied are fed to the inputs of two different second order Delta sigma modulators after sampling at different sampling rates. The operating clock periods of the two DSMs are also different. The output of the DSM which is operating at higher clock frequency is inverted or not inverted depending on the bit state at the output of low frequency DSM. The resulting bit stream at the output of multiplier is the digital representation of the product of the two analog signals. Most important patents are also discussed in this article.