Nowadays, transformers are made of conventional magnetic cores which are constructed of a single grainoriented or amorphous, magnetic steel. Even though, the transformer is the most efficient of electrical machines, with efficiencies typically above 90%, it is possible to improve transformer performance by using composite magnetic cores. Patents related to this simple and effective technique can be traced back to 1929. The specific technique can be applied to wound core distribution transformers. By using wound cores constructed with a combination of conventional and high permeability grain-oriented steel the total owing cost (TOC) of the transformer can be reduced effectively. This paper presents a brief review of patents on wound and composite magnetic cores and introduces a generalized technique for the determination of the optimum design variables of a new composite wound core design.
Nowadays, wind energy is becoming a major contribution to balance the load with power production. However, wind production is highly fluctuating and its output can not be guaranteed at any particular time. This weather dependence of wind power makes difficult the planning between production and load. Moreover, it can also involve, in case of high wind penetration, problematic situations such as unpredicted stopping/start of high powered classical thermal or nuclear units. In this article, based on a self developed algorithm, the combined impact of wind geographical dispersion and prediction errors on the operation of classical production is studied. By the way, some interesting observations are drawn and show that the wind geographical dispersion does improve and facilitate the planning of the classical production system but that it has, however, to be nuanced in terms of produced wind energy. Finally, in order to define a new way to estimate wind production for the dispatch of classical units, a global mean wind distribution is also established. This last one is obtained via the calculation of hourly mean wind speeds based on the predictions made for each considered park. This article proposes such a study based on several important patents made in this wind area.
Reflectarray antennas have attracted significant attention due to a number of attractive properties, such as low cost, and conformal deployment capability. In addition, the drive towards flexible radio transceivers, enabling beamforming and multi-beam operation has spurred significant interest towards the design of antenna elements and antenna arrays with reconfigurable capabilities. A review of recent publications and patents on reconfigurable reflectarrays is presented focusing on the different capabilities, technologies and architectures that have been proposed.
In recent years, an increasing concern of environmental issues of emissions, in particular global warming and the limitations of energy resources has resulted in extensive research into novel technologies of generating electrical power. Thermoelectric power generators have emerged as a promising alternative green technology due to their distinct advantages. Thermoelectric power generation offer a potential application in the direct conversion of waste-heat energy into electrical power where it is unnecessary to consider the cost of the thermal energy input. The application of this alternative green technology in converting waste-heat energy directly into electrical power can also improve the overall efficiencies of energy conversion systems. In this paper, a background on the basic concepts of thermoelectric power generation is presented and recent patents of thermoelectric power generation with their important and relevant applications to waste-heat energy are reviewed and discussed.
Adiabatic operation promises large reductions of power consumption because it does not dissipate energy. This paper reviews recent progress in adiabatic circuits. First, a charge recycle regenerator with the tank capacitor is discussed. Next, an adiabatic charging binary decision diagram circuit is discussed. In the circuit, a gate-level pipeline can be realized by using four charge-recycling clocks. Also reviewed is an adiabatic circuit based on clocked energy reversible logic, which can maintain the complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor circuit architecture. Finally, adiabatic staticrandom- access-memory is covered, which is structurally close to the conventional SRAM. These adiabatic circuits are very effective in the nanoscale region because they can avoid hot carrier effects and electromigration owing to their gradual charging characteristics. This review also covers some important recent patents.
Many image processing software applications in the market offer redeye removal solutions. Most of these methods have been patented mainly by big companies. In this paper we summarize the history and the state of the art of redeye detection and correction in digital photography, starting from the analysis of these patents. We describe the main approaches with the help of flowcharts and figures, with special emphasis on how to evaluate the whole process of detection and correction with respect to the final results and what the user would like to obtain.
Similar to the fly-by-wire technology in aerospace industry, drive-by-wire technology in automotive industry replaces the traditional mechanical and hydraulic systems with mechatronic actuation and control and human-machine interfaces (such as pedals and steering wheels) with emulators. Brake-by-wire in particular, represents the replacement of traditional components such as the pumps, hoses, fluids, belts and brake boosters and master cylinders with electronic sensors and actuators. Some x-by-wire technologies have been already installed on commercial vehicles such as steer-bywire, and throttle-by-wire. Due to its safety-critical nature, the brake-by-wire technology is still under an intensive research and development by some automobile and automotive parts manufacturers worldwide and has not been widely commercialized yet. This paper surveys some recent patents that suggest techniques to solve two challenging problems in brake-by-wire systems. The first problem involves reliable measurement of the drivers brake demand using a multisensor brake pedal mechanism and handling its missing data samples. The second challenge is the measurement or estimation of the clamp force and actuator position/speed in a brake caliper for the purpose of actuator control. After an overview of relevant recent patents, the current development trends as well as suggestions for key future developments are presented.
The use of High Voltage Pulses has found applications in biotechnology, medicine, industrial applications, and food processing and preservation. Biotechnology application includes electro-chemotherapy, gene transfer, electroinsertion of proteins into cell plasma membrane, electrofusion of cells, transdermal drug delivery, water treatment and food. Industrial applications of High Voltage Pulses include the filtering of flue gas particles using electrostatic precipitators, treatment of metal and polymer materials by plasma immersion ion implantation, exciter lasers fabrication, flash radiography or ionization, polarization source in accelerators, insulation testing and so on. Efficiency of all these applications strongly depends on parameters of electric pulses, which are delivered to the treated object using specially developed electrodes and electronic devices. In this paper, the design and structure of high-voltage pulse generator will be described. We have presented most commonly used techniques of signal generation based on various methods such as: Marx cells and spark gaps, MOSFET series and parallel, IGBT, nonlinear capacitor, static induction thyristor, and modular high voltage. Methods of high voltage pulse generators based on various shape of pulse are also presented.