During the last five years, the number of patent publications in the field of microreactor engineering has increased steadily and seems now to approach a more constant level. The majority of patents are initiated by German, US, and Japanese inventors or applicants. Even among these, a few chemical companies and institutes have a major share. Initially, the focus was on fabrication, device, and total system related inventions. Meanwhile, an increasing number of process patent publications have been released showing the further stage of implementation of the technique which is moving to micro process engineering. The focus of the patents and published patent applications is on fine-chemical processes.
The concern over increasing needs for drinking water and awareness for development of systems to improve water quality both for drinking purposes and for effluents from wastewater treatment and industrial facilities have provided incentives to develop new technologies and improve performance of existing technologies. In this paper, the patents on treatment of water and wastewater approved during the period from 1999 to 2007 were reviewed. The patents surveyed were classified into two groups as technologies for water purification systems for drinking water, and technologies for treatment of wastewater. An assessment of the current and future outlook for development of new technologies, methods of treatment, equipment and instruments which can be used for water and wastewater treatment applications are presented.
The surface chemistry and pore structure of porous carbons determine its application. The surface chemistry could be modified by various methods, such as, acid treatment, oxidization, ammonization, plasma, microwave treatment, and so on. In this paper, the modification methods were illustrated and compared, some new methods also reviewed. The surface chemical functional groups were determined by the treatment methods, the amminization could increase its basic property while the oxidization commonly improved its acids. In the end, the commonly characterization methods were also mentioned. Some interesting patents are also discussed in this article.
Dendrimers or other hyperbranched polymers are a new class of artificial polymers with unique properties, such as high degree of branching units, high density of surface functional groups, nano-scaled size, well-defined molecular weight and low-dispersity. These features make them attractive materials in the field of membrane science. This review is a short survey of patents on dendrimers and other hyperbranched polymers in membrane fields such as proton exchange membranes, bipolar membranes, gas separation membranes, and solid-liquid separation membranes, etc.
The capture and storage of carbon dioxide has been identified as one potential solution to greenhouse gas driven climate change. Efficient separation technologies are required for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas streams to allow this solution to be widely implemented. A developing technology is membrane gas separation, which is more compact, energy efficient and possibly more economical than mature technologies, such as solvent absorption. This review examines the recent patented developments in polymeric based membranes designed for carbon dioxide separation from mixed-gas systems. Initially, the background to polymeric membrane separation is provided, with an overview of past polymeric designs. This is followed by a discussion on the current state of the art; in particular developments in mixed matrix polymeric membranes and facilitated transport polymeric membranes for improved carbon dioxide permeation and selectivity. Recent developments in other membrane types, carbon and inorganic, are reviewed for comparison purposes with polymeric developments. Finally, a brief comment on the future directions of polymeric membrane gas separation technologies is provided.
Solar energy is essential for human race. It spreads itself thin on the entire surface of the globe. The large buildings, which are now essential for the worlds growing population, need to be made comfortable for its residents. In certain parts of the year these radiations are not required for the comfort of the residents. If the buildings are allowed to receive these radiations, the expenditure of cooling is excessive. Coatings that reflect the infrared radiation in the near IR region responsible for heat from the solar radiation are formulated with special pigments. In the present paper, patents devoted to preparation of these pigments have been reviewed. Some research work carried out at University Institute of Chemical Technology has also been included. It has been found that there are no theories to predict the infrared reflectivity of a pigment and the best way to find one is to scan the available pigments for their IR reflectivity.
Static Mixer consists of a number of stationary mixing elements inserted along the direction of flow in a pipe. Each mixing element allows to divide the flow and to recombine it in a geometric sequence. A lot of static mixers are now available, e.g. Sulzer SMV and SMI, Chemineer KM, the Kenics HEV. These products differ quite considerably and the construction have effects on the manufacturing costs and also on the costs for the inbuilt the mixers in a plant. These well known motionless mixers allow to obtain good performances but usually the mixing length necessary for obtaining the homogeneity is longer than 5-10 pipe diameters. Another important constrain is the maximum permissible pressure loss in the operation. In the recent years, new products composed of a minimum number of elements, have been launched. These new products have a short inbuilt device length, they require a short mixing path and they have low pressure drops. This review analyzes the behaviour of these new innovative static mixers.