This article presents recent patents and advances on electrical methods for particle manipulation in a microfluidic environment. At microscale, electric fields have unique advantages in performing analytical functions such as manipulation of biological molecules and cells. The advent of AC electrokinetics in recent years further promotes the development of laboratory on a chip, providing versatility and flexibility to interface with many current methods and technologies in multiple biological, chemical and physical disciplines. This article gives an overview of AC electrical principles and their applications, with an emphasis on particle manipulation by electric fields.
Radio channel simulators are systems devised for testing communication links. They are mainly compounded of a way to generate channel realizations plus a technique that implement the input-output relationship for the signal and channel expressions. This paper presents a review of patents in the field of radio channel simulation that consider broadband channels with Multiple-Input and Multiple Output (MIMO). The former channels are the main interest in recent patents and patent applications in this field, since those channel characteristics are included in the latest communications standards. After establishing the problem formulation, we briefly introduce the main approaches to solve it from patents and open literature that have become in the “well known” solutions. Then we discuss lengthily the recent patents as well as the latest patent applications in this field. Based on the presented review, we emphasize the key aspects incorporated in the current implementation and forecast the channel modeling techniques that can drive the future trends in this area of research and development.
Automatic control has become one of the standard engineering fields and is inherently part of electrical engineering. Industrial controllers in any form are only a part of the hardware necessary for the control of industrial processes in, e.g., the process industry or manufacturing. The design of an industrial control system is greatly facilitated by an auto-tuning system, if it is available as part of the controller. Since the majority of control hardware for industry is of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type, most of the patents relating to auto-tuning are also about this type of control, though other patented methods and systems for control are available. In this paper, a survey of patents for autotuning methods and systems for industrial control is given. The patents are grouped into methods and systems based on model-based tuning with non-parametric and parametric models, relay tuning, multiple controllers for nonlinear processes, and other approaches. More stress is put on recent patents, but a wider survey of auto-tuning patents published in the past two decades is also given in the paper. The methods being patented are becoming more sophisticated and more universal and consequently they provide better assistance to the work of control-design engineers.
Design for Manufacturability (DfM) improves semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) yield by optimizing product design or layout. Positive impact of DfM on yield can be realized at production time (e.g., parametric yield), at the end of production (e.g., functional yield), or in the field (e.g., reliability yield). Patents issued in 2007-2008 timeframe enhance DfM in all these domains. In this paper, we review examples of DfM patent coverage starting from the new correct-by-construction layout concepts for single cells, extending into multi-cell intellectual property (IP) and mask level. Another DfM patent family proposes new design verification techniques by which the manufacturing delivers feedback to design/layout e.g., to remove local yield limiters (hot spots). The new concepts involve EDA algorithms, computer programs, and design kits, which help optimize the DfM related modifications of the layout. A number of patents improve the way design or layout corrected by DfM is verified by inspection or simulation, before a mask set is built. They also address DfM data collection, storage, and transfer to improve communication and cross-fab compatibility, when the same mask set is delivered to different manufacturers or comes from different design houses, with important aspects of data protection and cost reduction.
The synthesis algorithm is presented for 1-input 3-output optical delay-line circuit with IIR architectures. The authors recently reported circuit structure and subsequent synthesis algorithm for r 1x3optical delay-line circuit that can realize any arbitrary frequency characteristics of FIR optical filters. In the present paper, circuit configuration and synthesis mechanism for 1x3optical delay-line circuit with ring waveguides is proposed that can realize similar filter characteristics as infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters. The Synthesis algorithm is based on division of the total transfer matrix into basic unit blocks. A three-port IIR optical filter has been synthesized using the design data of IIR digital filter. In addition, in this article recent patents are also discussed.
In cellular systems, due to the mobility, proper handoff or handover management is critical to ensure seamless migration from one cell to another cell. Besides of maintaining the connection quality during a handover process, any advanced handover algorithms which can minimize required resources for the connection are critical. In 2G, 3G, and future wireless systems, to maintain the best connection quality, fast switching and soft handoff are considered for high transmission performance. To achieve fast-switching or soft handoff, multiple sectors/cells are required to be activated prior to the actual connection. As a result, extra resources from cells/sectors are needed to support the connection. Algorithms which can effectively minimize active sector/cell set without affecting connection quality is important to reduce the required hardware and RF resources. In this paper, considering handoff controls for the same cellular system, we will review the development of related critical patents. Even those patents are originally designed for CDMA cellular systems, the control concepts can also apply to recent OFDMA based systems like WiMAX and 4G cellular systems.
We present a pipelined inversion/division circuit in Galois field using AB2 circuit technique (where both A and B are elements in the finite field). We use composite Galois fields in a multiple-valued logic (MVL) approach to minimize the inversion/division circuit needed for binary Galois fields. The overall design, which connects basic cells in a systolic manner, thereby making effective use of pipelining, is shown. The fact that less literals are used speeds up the calculation operation. Also, our circuit shows a significant amount of savings in both transistor count and connections, which is so important in VLSI. In this review important patents are also discussed.
A different-from-conventional voice recognition approach for person recognition by identifying their voice is presented in this work. The main mathematical tool applied in the study is based on Töeplitz matrices. The recorded voice signal is filtered and processed for power spectrum estimation. The feature vector is then derived from the power spectrum and Töeplitz forms. This vector furnishes a unique voice-print differing from person to another. The new idea of this study lies in applying Toeplitz matrix minimal eigenvalues algorithm to Burgs estimating model for signal-image description and hence classification. This graphical approach of voice signal processing for human identification has introduced a new biometric approach to find its place among the non-conventional classical methods of human identification by verifying their voice. In this article related recent patents are also discussed.
This paper presents the sensorless speed control performance of an improved direct torque and flux control (DTFC) for induction motor. The proposed DTFC is based on fuzzy logic technique to replace switching table and hysteresis regulator, in order to reduce torque and flux ripples in comparison with the conventional DTFC. We estimated the rotor speed by using the Model Reference Adaptive Systems (MRAS). Several strategies of speed control are presented and tested: Proportional Integral regulator (PI) anti-windup, PI with and without saturation and PI fuzzy logic. The validity of proposed technique is verified by simulation results using Matlab/Simulink. In this article recent patented strategies are also discussed.