The adsorption refrigeration is based on the evaporation and condensation of a refrigerant combined with adsorption or chemical reaction. The soaring fossil fuel price and the awareness of environmental problems offer many potential applications to thermal powered adsorption cooling. However, the adsorption cooling machines still have some disadvantages that hinder their wide application. This paper reviews more than 100 patents filed mainly since year 2000 that propose technologies to improve adsorption system and make it become a realistic alternative. The patents surveyed are classified into four main groups: adsorption system development, adsorbent bed innovation, adsorbent/adsorbate material development and novel application of adsorption cooling system. The various technology options are discussed and evaluated. “Hot spots” and key inventors/applicants are identified. An assessment is made about current and future development of adsorption refrigeration technologies.
Solar energy collectors are special kind of heat exchangers that transform solar radiation energy to internal energy of the transport medium. The solar collector is the major component of any solar system. There are basically two types of solar collectors: non-concentrating or stationary and concentrating. The latter require some kind of tracking mechanism so as to allow the collector to follow the apparent movement of the sun with certain accuracy. This paper reviews various recent patents in both types of collectors, tracking mechanisms and various applications. The patents reviewed concern a period extending from the years 2002 up to date. The patents included in this review refer mainly to solar collectors which include flat plate, parabolic troughs and central receiver collectors, whereas a number of patents concern the development of mechanisms for tracking the sun. The applications concern mainly integrated collector storage, water heating systems, solar desalination, absorption cooling, air conditioning and refrigeration. The list of patents reviewed is by no means complete or extensive it shows however the extent of the subjects covered in patents in this area during the last four years. The paper concludes with a description of the future developments expected in the subjects covered.
Currently available facilities in Cold Spray are limited in use because of some unwanted features. The first feature is powder feeding into working gas, possibly uniform heating and acceleration up to necessary temperature and velocity. The second is connected with a dilemma service term/cost of working nozzle production. Another problem is collection of un-deposited powder. It allows cost-effective production of articles by re-using the powder and prevents the environment pollution. For success marketing there is a need for new applications including those where Cold Spray that from can be embedded (build in) easily and cost-effective. In the present paper, the most important patents published since the last 3 years and claiming the solutions of typical problems in convenient Cold Spray devices allowing increasing effectiveness and reducing the costs of both the devices units and products, prolong service term and searching new application areas are reviewed. Modernization has reached by material replacing, geometry, and embedding additional units into main design. Concerning new applications the patents cover the area connected with the production of corrosive, electrical/magnetic and other barrier coating articles.
We review recent patents on a chirp managed transmitter comprised of a DML and the subsequent optical bandpass filter. Large dispersion tolerance of this transmitter is realized by chirp control through the phase correlation between adjacent bits for the destructive interference in order to erase the power of “0” bits and enhance the extinction ratio. The reach of this transmitter without dispersion compensation is superior to the best reported DML-based and duobinary transmitters. The results show that this is a promising solution to meet the size, power, capacity and cost requirements of the optical links simultaneously in the today and tomorrows metro and access networks.
In view of the flight theory of rotorcraft, breakthroughs in the field of rotorcraft configuration during recent twenty years are described in this paper. From the traditional configuration (including the single main rotor with tail rotor, tandem rotors, side by side twin rotors, coaxial rotors and crossing rotors) to the recent ones (including ducted tail rotor, non-tail rotor helicopter, hingeless rotor, bearingless rotor, tilt-rotor, tip-jet rotor, reverse velocity rotor system, the compound helicopter and rotor/wing transition helicopter), the great progress on rotorcraft configuration have been revolutionarily made. These new technologies have an effect on the rotorcraft performance in high speed and supermaneuverability and high-agility flights. In light of advancing blade transonic shock and stall of retreating blade at high angle of attack in forward flight for helicopter conventional layout, the new progress in rotorcraft configuration in recent years show the potential to exceed maximum flight speed limit for current helicopters, and even to be greater than the cruise speed of propeller aircraft. At the same time, maneuverability and stability in forward flight have been improved. With the increased rotor efficiency, overload capability and good flight performance, these new types of rotorcraft have good maneuverability and lower vibration/noise level, and avoid ground or air resonance. Owing to the introduction of the new types of rotor configuration, the reliability and maintainability as well as survivability of the rotorcraft can be improved significantly. Therefore, their service life has been prolonged. In short, the rotorcraft with new types of configuration will become the more economical, effective and rapid vehicles for air traffic transportation in the future.
The development of novel fabrication methods, materials and surface chemistries to implement nucleic acid analysis brings reduced cost, reduced reagent consumption, increased analysis efficiency, portability, ease of use and reliability to todays genomic approach. This trend, as evident by the exponential growth in the number of patent applications, granted patents and commercialized systems, is motivated by the promise for significant breakthroughs and benefits of nucleic acid analysis to drug discovery and point-of-care diagnosis. This review paper aims at identifying the enabling technologies and key patents in microfluidics for nucleic acid analysis. In particular, it seeks to identify granted and pending patents for cell sorting and lysis, nucleic acid extraction and purification, followed by nucleic acid amplification, separation and detection. Additionally, it presents an overview of the current intellectual property environment and seeks to identify trends for the future development. Much of this development is geared increasingly toward fully integrated systems. The convergence of technology and interdisciplinary interests is expected to foster further breakthroughs and commercialization.
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an increasingly important and rich source of stem cells. These cells can be used for the treatment of many deadly diseases, including cancers, immune and genetic disorders. It also provides a readily available source of stem cells for transplantation purposes. In this paper, we review the literature published that reflects the designs of UCB collection apparatus in order to obtain stem cells.
The refining of edible oils requires a series of purification steps, with the most important being the decrease of the free fatty acid level of the crude oil. This step is very important for the quality of the final product and has a major impact on the economic feasibility of the whole process. Several techniques, alternative to the conventional caustic or steam distillation methods, are suggested in the literature, such as supercritical extraction, membrane technology and solvent extraction. In the present paper we discuss the main aspects related to the solvent extraction technique, coupled or not with the conventional methods. The reviewed patents indicate various advantages of a purification process based on the selective extraction of free fatty acids using short chain alcohols. Its technical feasibility is due to the differences in solubility of free fatty acids and neutral oil in the proposed solvents. This alternative technique does not generate waste products and can preserve nutraceutical compounds in the refined oil.
Marine platforms such as pontoons or barges often need to be joined together to create a larger overall working surface such as a bridge, a floating base or a floating causeway. This paper discussed the key technical challenges of joining such platforms for constructing large floating platforms in rough seas. Nine relevant patents on pontoon connector designs are reviewed. A novel design concept is introduced, which consists of Hans patented Fender Connector  and Frictional Locking Connector . The design concept amalgamates the multiple functional requirements, such as rapid self-alignment, impact attenuation, self-tensioning, rigid engagement and superior strength into an integrated design. The engineering process from concept generation, model testing, detailed design and evaluation, material selection, prototyping and sea trials are presented. Current and future development of the technologies are discussed. Potential applications are illustrated.