The present patents relate to power generating apparatus suitable for use in extracting geothermal energy. The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. As our reliance on fossil fuels have started to decrease, geothermal energy is seen as one of the new sources of power generation by digging out the heat stored inside the earth. Geothermal direct use dates back thousands of years, when people began using directly hot springs for bathing or cooking food although in modern direct-use systems, a well is drilled into a geothermal reservoir to provide a steady stream of hot water. Many technologies have been developed to take advantage of this clean energy in one way for electricity production in power plants or in other way to produce heat or cold as support of heating and air conditioning installations. This latter option uses the air-to-air or air-to-water systems. The paper introduces this type of energy, its resources, summarizes the most relevant technologies implemented and highlights environmental issues compared to other technologies. It is finally focused on the review of the most recent and relevant patents related to the devices devoted to extract this energy from the earth, highlighting their significance and limitations. The paper concludes by addressing current and future developments in the field.
Wine has a rich history dating back thousands of years. It has been object of several studies and experiments performed by researchers and simple passionate people. Different varieties of grapes, strains of yeasts, and technologies produce different types of wine. The well-known variations result from the very complex interactions between the biochemical development of the fruit, reactions involved in fermentation, and human intervention in the overall process. The final product may contain tens of thousands of chemical compounds in amounts varying from a few percent to a few parts per billion. Numerous inventions have been proposed, concerning specific yeast strains, clones of grape able to improve wine sensory properties, plants and methods capable to make easier and cheaper its production and technical solutions for enhancing its packaging and preservation. This review presents a summary of the main European, United States and international patents available on wine production and preservation.
Pisco is a traditional beverage from Peru (South America) produced by the fermentation of pisco grapes. This article discusses the by-products of pisco production as a potential source of bioactive compounds; until now, pisco bagasse has had no industrial application. There is a knowledge gap that is the result of the lack of qualitative and quantitative information in the literature about the by-product of pisco production. Thus, we focus on the benefits that may be obtained with pisco by-product recovery, utilizing a literature review – including articles and patents – of the by-product generated in the production of wine and of the differences between the pisco and wine processes. This article analyzes the chemical composition, the biological activity and the major uses of pisco by-product, in addition to the applications for and biological activity of the extracts obtained through different extraction methods.
The lubrication of the piston ring has been an important research matter for many years because it is generally accepted that the interaction at the ring-cylinder wall interface provides considerable effects on friction, wear, oil consumption and power loss in internal combustion engines. This paper after a historical overview presents in the first section the main physical phenomena considered by the literature for the design and the numerical simulation of frictional behaviour of piston rings. In the second section the first patents appeared since 1920s are briefly discussed before the more recent ones which deal with novel materials, innovative manufacturing methods, optimised shape and novel nano-lubricants.
This paper presents a new design for a thermogenerator suitable for working on low-temperature (up to 175°C) BiTe modules. Its improvement is related to the cooling system that is a low-cost modular device based on domestic hotwater radiators working in a natural-convection loop. Thermal and cost analyses were performed, showing that a competitive 1kW unit could be built (with a specific cost of 21,300 U$D/kW) by optimizing the whole cooling system to work on the new high-temperature (up to 320°C) BiTe modules recently launched, while present commercial thermogenerators cost about 60,000 U$D/kW. This novel design has not been claimed in an invention patent application since it is intended for use in the open market worldwide.